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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

Is breakfast intake associated with achieving recommended nutrient intakes? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

10/07/2009 and 10/08/2009

Inclusion Criteria

  • Subjects/Population: Human subjects
  • Age: Children, men and women of all ages
  • Setting: International
  • Health status: Healthy and those with elevated chronic disease risk (CHD/CVD, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity
  • Nutrition-related problem/condition: None.

Search Criteria 

  • Study design preferences:  RCT or clinical controlled studies, large non-randomized observational studies, cohort, case-control studies, systematic reviews and meta-analysis
  • Size of study groups: The sample size must equal 10 adults for each study group. For example, this would include 10 patients in the intervention group and 10 patients in the control or comparison group 
  • Study dropout rate: Less than 20%; preference for smaller dropout rates
  • Year range: June 2004 to present
  • Authorship: If an author is included on more than one review article or primary research article that is similar in content, the most recent review or article will be accepted and earlier versions will be rejected
  • Languages: Limited to articles in English
  • Other: Article must be published in peer-reviewed journal.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Subjects/Population:
    • Animal and in vitro studies
    • Malnourished or developing populations or disease incidence not relative to US population (e.g., malaria)
  • Setting: Hospitalized patients
  • Health status: Medical treatment or therapy and diseased subjects
  • Nutrition-related problem/condition: All conditions.

Search Criteria

  • Size of study groups: Sample sizes less than 10
  • Study dropout rate: Dropout rate of 20% or greater
  • Year range: Prior to June 2004
  • Authorship: Studies by same author similar in content
  • Languages: Articles not in English
  • Other: Abstracts or presentations and articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.).

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

breakfast* AND (food group* OR bread[mh] OR “dairy products”[mh] OR “dietary fiber”[mh] OR eggs[mh] OR yogurt OR fruit[mh] OR meat[mh] OR vegetables[mh] OR nuts[mh] OR cereals[mh] OR bread[mh] OR whole grain* OR food[majr) AND (eating[mh] OR "Nutritional Status"[Mesh] OR “nutritional requirements"[mesh] OR "Nutritive Value"[Mesh] OR “nutrient adequacy”)

"breakfast consumption" OR breakfast* AND consumption*?

breakfast* AND skip*

Breakfast AND ( "diet quality" OR  (nutriti* AND adequacy*) OR  "Micronutrients"[Mesh] OR (meal frequency) OR (consumption  AND  patterns) OR (dietary AND pattern*)  OR "Deficiency Diseases"[Mesh])  NOT (skip* OR Editorial[ptyp] OR Letter[ptyp] OR review[ptyp] OR “Feeding Behavior”[mesh]) 

Breakfast AND “Feeding Behavior”[mesh]         

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 871

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 78

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

Hand-search: Two.

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 14

Number of Review Articles Identified: 1

Total Number of Articles Identified: 15

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 63

 



 

 


List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

Affenito SG, Thompson DR, Barton BA, Franko DL, Daniels SR, Obarzanek E, Schreiber GB, Striegel-Moore RH. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jun; 105(6): 938-945. PMID: 15942545.   

Dubois L, Girard M, Potvin Kent M, Farmer A, Tatone-Tokuda F. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Jan; 12(1): 19-28. Epub 2008 Mar 18. PMID: 18346309.

Kerver JM, Yang EJ, Obayashi S, Bianchi L, Song WO. Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan; 106(1): 46-53. PMID: 16390666. 

Matthys C, De Henauw S, Bellemans M, De Maeyer M, De Backer G. Breakfast habits affect overall nutrient profiles in adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Apr; 10(4): 413-421. PMID: 17362538.

Nelson M, Lowes K, Hwang V; members of the Nutrition Group, School Meals Review Panel, Department for Education and Skills. The contribution of school meals to food consumption and nutrient intakes of young people aged 4 to 18 years in England. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Jul; 10(7): 652-662. Epub 2007 Mar 6. PMID: 17381913.

Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J, Metzl JD. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May; 105(5): 743-760; quiz 761-762. Review. PMID: 15883552. Breakfast- systematic review.

Song WO, Chun OK, Kerver J, Cho S, Chung CE, Chung SJ. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption enhances milk and calcium intake in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Nov; 106(11): 1, 783-1, 789. PMID: 17081829.

Song WO, Chun OK, Obayashi S, Cho S, Chung CE. Is consumption of breakfast associated with body mass index in US adults? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Sep; 105(9): 1, 373-1, 382. PMID: 16129078.

Stockman NK, Schenkel TC, Brown JN, Duncan AM. Comparison of energy and nutrient intakes among meals and snacks of adolescent males. Prev Med. 2005 Jul; 41(1): 203-210. Epub 2004 Dec 10. PMID: 15917012.  

Timlin MT, Pereira MA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Breakfast eating and weight change in a 5-year prospective analysis of adolescents: Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121 (3): e638-e645. PMID: 18310183.

van der Heijden AA, Hu FB, Rimm EB, van Dam RM. A prospective study of breakfast consumption and weight gain among U.S. men. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Oct; 15(10): 2, 463-2, 469. PMID: 17925472.  

Williams BM, O'Neil CE, Keast DR, Cho S, Nicklas TA. Are breakfast consumption patterns associated with weight status and nutrient adequacy in African-American children? Public Health Nutr. 2009 Apr; 12(4): 489-496. Epub 2008 May 27. PMID: 18503723.

Williams P.  Breakfast and the diets of Australian adults: An analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Feb; 56(1): 65-79. PMID: 16019316.

Williams P. Breakfast and the diets of Australian children and adolescents: An analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 May; 58(3): 201-216. PMID: 17514538.

Woodruff SJ, Hanning RM, Lambraki I, Storey KE, McCargar L. Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping. Body Image. 2008 Dec; 5(4): 404-408. Epub 2008 Jul 21. PMID: 18640883.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

 

Excluded Articles (A–J) Reason for Exclusion
Albertson AM, Franko DL, Thompson D, Eldridge AL, Holschuh N, Affenito SG, Bauserman R, Striegel-Moore RH. Longitudinal patterns of breakfast eating in black and white adolescent girls. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15(9): 2, 282-2, 292. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Alexander KE, Ventura EE, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Goran MI, Davis JN. Association of breakfast skipping with visceral fat and insulin indices in overweight Latino youth. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Aug; 17(8): 1, 528-1, 533. Epub 2009 May 7. PMID: 19424166. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Ask AS, Hernes S, Aarek I, Johannessen G, Haugen M. Changes in dietary pattern in 15-year-old adolescents following a four-month dietary intervention with school breakfast: A pilot study. Nutr J. 2006 Dec 7; 5: 33. PMID: 17150115.  Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Barton BA, Eldridge AL, Thompson D, Affenito SG, Striegel-Moore RH, Franko DL, Albertson AM, Crockett SJ. The relationship of breakfast and cereal consumption to nutrient intake and body mass index: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Sep; 105(9): 1, 383-1, 389. PMID: 16129079. Does not answer the question; about cereal consumption.
Berg C, Lappas G, Wolk A, Strandhagen E, Torén K, Rosengren A, Thelle D, Lissner L. Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population.. Appetite. 2009 Feb; 52(1): 21-26. Epub 2008 Jul 25. PMID: 18694791.
Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Bertéus Forslund H, Torgerson JS, Sjöström L, Lindroos AK. Snacking frequency in relation to energy intake and food choices in obese men and women compared to a reference population. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun; 29(6): 711-719. PMID: 15809664. Does not answer the question; meals, snacks and body weight.
Burgess-Champoux TL, Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M. Are family meal patterns associated with overall diet quality during the transition from early to middle adolescence? J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Mar-Apr; 41(2): 79-86. PMID: 19304252. Does not answer the question; family meals and nutrient adequacy.
Carels RA, Young KM, Coit C, Clayton AM, Spencer A, Wagner M. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants. Appetite. 2008 Nov; 51(3): 538-545. Epub 2008 Apr 15. PMID: 18511146. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Chitra U, Reddy CR. The role of breakfast in nutrient intake of urban schoolchildren. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Jan; 10(1): 55-58. PMID: 17212843. Does not answer the question; quality of meals and consumption pattern.
Clark CA, Gardiner J, McBurney MI, Anderson S, Weatherspoon LJ, Henry DN, Hord NG. Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep; 60(9): 1, 122-1, 129. Epub 2006 May 3. PMID: 16670695. Does not answer the question; about glycemic response.
Cluskey M, Edlefsen M, Olson B, Reicks M, Auld G, Bock MA, Boushey CJ, Bruhn C, Goldberg D, Misner S, Wang C, Zaghloul S. At-home and away-from-home eating patterns influencing preadolescents' intake of calcium-rich food as perceived by Asian, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white parents. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2008 Mar-Apr; 40(2): 72-79. PMID: 18314082. Does not answer the question; about eating patterns, parental perspective.
Condon EM, Crepinsek MK, Fox MK. School meals: Types of foods offered to and consumed by children at lunch and breakfast. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Feb; 109(2 Suppl): S67-S78. PMID: 19166674.  Does not answer the question; comparison of meals.
Croezen S, Visscher TL, Ter Bogt NC, Veling ML, Haveman-Nies Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents: Results of the E-MOVO project. A. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar; 63(3): 405-412. Epub 2007 Nov 28. PMID: 18043703. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Crossman A, Anne Sullivan D, Benin M. The family environment and American adolescents' risk of obesity as young adults. Soc Sci Med. 2006 Nov; 63(9): 2, 255-2, 267. Epub 2006 Jul 7. PMID: 16828216. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and obesity.
Dialektakou KD, Vranas PB. Breakfast skipping and body mass index among adolescents in Greece: Whether an association exists depends on how breakfast skipping is defined. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Sep; 108(9): 1, 517-1, 525. PMID: 18755326. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Dubois L, Girard M, Potvin Kent M. Breakfast eating and overweight in a pre-school population: Is there a link? Public Health Nutr. 2006 Jun; 9(4): 436-442. PMID: 16870015. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Duncan JS, Schofield G, Duncan EK, Rush EC. Risk factors for excess body fatness in New Zealand children. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008; 17(1): 138-147. PMID: 18364339. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Ells LJ, Hillier FC, Shucksmith J, Crawley H, Harbige L, Shield J, Wiggins A, Summerbell CD. A systematic review of the effect of dietary exposure that could be achieved through normal dietary intake on learning and performance of school-aged children of relevance to UK schools. Br J Nutr. 2008 Nov; 100(5): 927-936. Epub 2008 Apr 1. Review. PMID: 18377677. Does not answer the question; effects of nutrition on learning.

Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb; 81(2): 388-396. PMID: 15699226. 

Does not answer the question; breakfast intake and glucose and lipids intake.

Fernández San Juan PM. Dietary habits and nutritional status of school aged children in Spain. Nutr Hosp. 2006 May-Jun; 21(3): 374-378. PMID: 16771121.

Commentary.
Garrido G, Webster AL, Chamorro M. Nutritional adequacy of different menu settings in elite Spanish adolescent soccer players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Oct; 17(5): 421-432. PMID: 18046052. Does not answer the question; evaluation of two different meals for adolescent soccer players in Spain.
Gleason PM, Dodd AH. School breakfast program but not school lunch program participation is associated with lower body mass index. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Feb; 109(2 Suppl): S118-S128. PMID: 19166666. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Gross SM, Bronner Y, Welch C, Dewberry-Moore N, Paige DM. Breakfast and lunch meal skipping patterns among fourth-grade children from selected public schools in urban, suburban, and rural maryland. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Mar; 104(3): 420-423. PMID: 14993865. Does not answer the question; consumption patterns at breakfast and lunch.
Hirschler V, Buzzano K, Erviti A, Ismael N, Silva S, Dalamon R. Overweight and lifestyle behaviors of low socioeconomic elementary school children in Buenos Aires. BMC Pediatr. 2009 Feb 24; 9: 17. PMID: 19239682. It doesn’t answer the question; breakfast skipping, snacking and body weight.

 

Excluded Articles (K–R) Reason for Exclusion
Klunklin S, Channoonmuang K. Snack consumption in normal and undernourished preschool children in Northeastern Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 May ;89(5): 706-713. PMID: 16756059. Does not answer the question; snacks and sodium intake.
Kosti RI, Panagiotakos DB, Mihas CC, Alevizos A, Zampelas A, Mariolis A, Tountas Y. Dietary habits, physical activity and prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescents in Greece: The Vyronas study. Med Sci Monit. 2007 Oct; 13(10): CR437-CR444. PMID: 17901850. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M. Family meals during adolescence are associated with higher diet quality and healthful meal patterns during young adulthood. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Sep; 107(9): 1, 502-1, 510. PMID: 17761227. Does not answer the question; family meals and nutrient adequacy.

Lazzeri G, Giallombardo D, Guidoni C, Zani A, Casorelli A, Grasso A, Pozzi T, Rossi S, Giacchi M. Nutritional surveillance in Tuscany: Eating habits at breakfast, mid-morning and afternoon snacks among 8- to 9-year-old children. J Prev Med Hyg. 2006 Sep; 47(3): 91-99. PMID: 17217185. 

Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Lin W, Yang HC, Hang CM, Pan WH. Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007; 16 Suppl 2: 534-546. PMID: 17723993. Does not answer the question; nutrition knowledge in Taiwanese children.
Lioret S, Touvier M, Lafay L, Volatier JL, Maire B. Are eating occasions and their energy content related to child overweight and socioeconomic status? Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008 Nov; 16(11): 2, 518-2, 523. Epub 2008 Sep 4. PMID: 18772863. Does not answer the question; eating frequency, breakfast, snacks, weight.
Maddah M, Rashidi A, Mohammadpour B, Vafa R, Karandish M. In-school snacking, breakfast consumption, and sleeping patterns of normal and overweight Iranian high school girls: A study in urban and rural areas in Guilan, Iran. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Jan-Feb; 41(1): 27-31. PMID: 19161917. Does not answer the question; about TV, skipping breakfast and BMI.
Maddah M, Nikooyeh B. Factors associated with overweight in children in Rasht, Iran: Gender, maternal education, skipping breakfast and parental obesity. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Jun 23: 1-5. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19545473. Does not answer the question; determinant of obesity in Iranian children.
Magnusson MB, Hulthén L, Kjellgren KI. Obesity, dietary pattern and physical activity among children in a suburb with a high proportion of immigrants. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2005 Jun; 18(3): 187-194. PMID: 15882381. Does not answer the question; TV, skipping breakfast and BMI.
Malinauskas BM, Raedeke TD, Aeby VG, Smith JL, Dallas MB. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females. Nutr J. 2006 Mar 31; 5: 11. PMID: 16579846. Does not answer the question; about self-monitoring.
Marín-Guerrero AC, Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Eating behaviours and obesity in the adult population of Spain. Br J Nutr. 2008 Nov; 100(5): 1, 142-1, 148. Epub 2008 Apr 1. PMID: 18377684. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Mariscal-Arcas M, Romaguera D, Rivas A, Feriche B, Pons A, Tur JA, Olea-Serrano F. Diet quality of young people in southern Spain evaluated by a Mediterranean adaptation of the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec; 98(6): 1, 267-1, 273. Epub 2007 Jul 19. PMID: 17640424. Does not answer the question; evaluation of a diet quality of a young Mediterranean population.
Merten MJ, Williams AL, Shriver LH. Breakfast consumption in adolescence and young adulthood: Parental presence, community context, and obesity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Aug; 109(8): 1, 384-1, 391. PMID: 19631044. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Mota J, Fidalgo F, Silva R, Ribeiro JC, Santos R, Carvalho J, Santos MP. Relationships between physical activity, obesity and meal frequency in adolescents. Ann Hum Biol. 2008 Jan-Feb; 35(1): 1-10. PMID: 18274921. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Nagel G, Wabitsch M, Galm C, Berg S, Brandstetter S, Fritz M, Klenk J, Peter R, Prokopchuk D, Steiner R, Stroth S, Wartha O, Weiland SK, Steinacker J. Determinants of obesity in the Ulm Research on Metabolism, Exercise and Lifestyle in Children (URMEL-ICE).. Eur J Pediatr. 2009 ct; 168(10): 1, 259-1, 267. Epub 2009 Jun 28. PMID: 19562371. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Niemeier HM, Raynor HA, Lloyd-Richardson EE, Rogers ML, Wing RR. Fast food consumption and breakfast skipping: Predictors of weight gain from adolescence to adulthood in a nationally representative sample. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Dec; 39(6): 842-849. Epub 2006 Sep 27. PMID: 17116514. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
O'Dea JA, Wilson R. Socio-cognitive and nutritional factors associated with body mass index in children and adolescents: Possibilities for childhood obesity prevention. Health Educ Res. 2006 Dec; 21(6): 796-805. Epub 2006 Nov 9. PMID: 17095571. Does not answer the question; nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with BMI.
Øverby NC, Margeirsdottir HD, Brunborg C, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Andersen LF; Norwegian Study Group for Childhood Diabetes. Sweets, snacking habits, and skipping meals in children and adolescents on intensive insulin treatment. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Aug; 9(4 Pt 2): 393-400. PMID: 18774998. Does not answer the question; population with diabetes.
Panagiotakos DB, Antonogeorgos G, Papadimitriou A, Anthracopoulos MB, Papadopoulos M, Konstantinidou M, Fretzayas A, Priftis KN. Breakfast cereal is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity among 10- to 12-year-old children: the PANACEA study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Nov; 18(9): 606-612. Epub 2008 May 23. PMID: 18502106. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Prochnik Estima Cde C, da Costa RS, Sichieri R, Pereira RA, da Veiga GV. Meal consumption patterns and anthropometric measurements in adolescents from a low socioeconomic neighborhood in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Appetite. 2009 Jun; 52(3): 735-739. Epub 2009 Apr 5. PMID: 19501773. Does not answer the question; meal consumption and anthropometrics.
Roseman MG, Yeung WK, Nickelsen J. Examination of weight status and dietary behaviors of middle school students in Kentucky. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jul; 107(7): 1, 139-1, 145. PMID: 17604742. Does not answer the question; weight status and dietary practices.

 

Excluded Articles (S–Z) Reason for Exclusion
Shemilt I, Harvey I, Shepstone L, Swift L, Reading R, Mugford M, Belderson P, Norris N, Thoburn J, Robinson J. A national evaluation of school breakfast clubs: Evidence from a cluster randomized controlled trial and an observational analysis. Child Care Health Dev. 2004 Sep; 30(5): 413-427. PMID: 15320919. Does not answer the question; study from England that compares two groups: school-based breakfast club vs. control.
Skemiene L, Ustinaviciene R, Radisauskas R, Kirvaitiene J, Lazauskas R, Sabonaityte S. Nutritional habits of middle-aged schoolchildren from Kaunas town and Raseiniai district. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009; 45(4): 302-311. English, Lithuanian. PMID: 19423961. Does not answer the question; nutritional habits of middle-aged school children in Lithuania.
Song Y, Joung H, Engelhardt K, Yoo SY, Paik HY. Traditional v. modified dietary patterns and their influence on adolescents' nutritional profile. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jun; 93(6): 943-949. PMID: 16022765. Does not answer the question; about dietary patterns in Korea.
Storey KE, Forbes LE, Fraser SN, Spence JC, Plotnikoff RC, Raine KD, Hanning RM, McCargar LJ. Diet quality, nutrition and physical activity among adolescents: The Web-SPAN (Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition) project. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Jun 23: 1-9. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19545471.  Does not answer the question; diet quality and meal behaviors.
Storey KE, Hanning RM, Lambraki IA, Driezen P, Fraser SN, McCargar LJ. Determinants of diet quality among Canadian adolescents. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009 Summer; 70(2): 58-65. PMID: 19515268. Does not answer the question; determinants of diet quality.
Sun Y, Sekine M, Kagamimori S. Lifestyle and Overweight Among Japanese Adolescents: The Toyama Birth Cohort Study. J Epidemiol. 2009 Sep 19. PMID: 19776497. Does not answer the question; TV viewing, snaking and obesity.
Sweeney NM, Horishita N. The breakfast-eating habits of inner city high school students. J Sch Nurs. 2005 Apr; 21(2): 100-105. PMID: 15801876. Does not answer the question; breakfast eating habits.

Tapper K, Murphy S, Lynch R, Clark R, Moore GF, Moore L. Development of a scale to measure 9- to 11-year-olds' attitudes towards breakfast. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 62(4): 511-518. Epub 2007 Mar 21. PMID: 17375113.

Does not answer the question; development and validation of a questionnaire to measure attitudes towards breakfast.
Vågstrand K, Barkeling B, Forslund HB, Elfhag K, Linné Y, Rössner S, Lindroos AK. Eating habits in relation to body fatness and gender in adolescents: Results from the 'SWEDES' study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr; 61(4): 517-525. Epub 2006 Sep 27. PMID: 17006444. Does not answer the question; eating frequency, breakfast and snacks and weight.
Vanelli M, Iovane B, Bernardini A, Chiari G, Errico MK, Gelmetti C, Corchia M, Ruggerini A, Volta E, Rossetti S; Students of the Post-Graduate School of Paediatrics,  University of Parma. Breakfast habits of 1, 202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesity. Acta Biomed. 2005 Sep; 76(2): 79-85. PMID: 16350552. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Vereecken C, Dupuy M, Rasmussen M, Kelly C, Nansel TR, Al Sabbah H, Baldassari D, Jordan MD, Maes L, Niclasen BV, Ahluwalia N; HBSC Eating & Dieting Focus Group. Breakfast consumption and its socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates in schoolchildren in 41 countries participating in the HBSC study. Int J Public Health. 2009 Sep; 54 Suppl 2: 180-190. PMID: 19639257. It doesn’t answer the question; breakfast consumption and lifestyle factors.
Waqa G, Mavoa H. Sociocultural factors influencing the food choices of 16- to 18-year-old indigenous Fijian females at school. Pac Health Dialog. 2006 Sep; 13(2): 57-64. PMID: 18181391. Does not answer the question; socio-cultural factors of obesity.
Woodruff SJ, Hanning RM. Associations between family dinner frequency and specific food behaviors among grade six, seven, and eight students from Ontario and Nova Scotia. J Adolesc Health. 2009 May; 44(5): 431-436. Epub 2009 Jan 9. PMID: 19380089. It doesn’t answer the question. Family meals and nutrient adequacy
Woodruff SJ, Hanning RM. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009 Autumn; 70(3): 118-124. PMID: 19709467. Does not answer the question; family meals.
Yahia N, Achkar A, Abdallah A, Rizk S. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students.Nutr J. 2008 Oct 30; 7: 32. PMID: 18973661. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.
Yang RJ, Wang EK, Hsieh YS, Chen MY. Irregular breakfast eating and health status among adolescents in Taiwan. BMC Public Health. 2006 Dec 7; 6: 295. PMID: 17150112. Does not answer the question; about breakfast and body weight.

Zullig K, Ubbes VA, Pyle J, Valois RF. Self-reported weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating among high school adolescents. J Sch Health. 2006 Mar; 76(3): 87-92. PMID: 16475983. 

Does not answer the question; about reasons for skipping breakfast.