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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

What is the relationship between adherence to dietary guidelines/recommendations or specific dietary patterns, assessed using an index or score, and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Are prevailing patterns of diet behavior in a population, assessed using factor or cluster analysis, related to risk of cardiovascular disease?

What is the relationship between adherence to dietary guidelines/recommendations or specific dietary patterns, assessed using reduced rank regression analysis, and cardiovascular disease?

What is the relationship between adherence to dietary guidelines/recommendations or specific dietary patterns (assessed using methods other than index/score, cluster or factor, or reduced rank regression analyses) and risk of cardiovascular disease?

Date Searched

9/2012, 1/2013, 8/2013

Inclusion Criteria

Inclusion criteria for the dietary patterns systematic reviews included the following:

  • Human subjects
  • Subject populations from countries with high or very high human development, according to the Human Development Index [1]
  • Children, adolescents, and adults aged 2 years and older
  • Subjects who were healthy or at elevated chronic disease risk
  • Randomized or non-randomized controlled trial with at least 30 subjects per study arm and a follow-up rate of at least 80%, or a prospective cohort study
  • A description of the dietary pattern(s) consumed by subjects:
    • For this review, dietary patterns were defined as the quantities, proportions, variety, or combination of different foods, drinks, and nutrients (when available) in diets, and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed.
In addition, articles were included if they were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal between January 1980 and August 2013 (see Appendices F-H for the date of the last search update for each question). If an author is included on more than one primary research article that is similar in content, the paper with the most pertinent data/endpoints was included. If data/endpoints from both papers are appropriate, it was made clear that results are from the same intervention.
 

Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria for the dietary patterns systematic reviews included:

  • Animals and in vitro models
  • Subject populations from countries with medium or low human development, according to the Human Development Index
  • Children under the age of 2 years
  • Subjects who were hospitalized, diagnosed with disease, and/or receiving medical treatment
  • Low-calorie intervention (defined as <1, 600 kcal/day for women and <2, 000 kcal/day for men)
  • Systematic review, meta-analysis, narrative review, before and after, cross-sectional, or case-control designs
Articles were excluded if they were not published in English, or were published before January 1980. Articles, abstracts, and presentations not published in peer-reviewed journals (e.g., websites, magazine articles, Federal reports) were also excluded. Finally, if an author was included on more than one review article or primary research article that is similar in content, the paper with the most pertinent data/endpoints was included, and others were excluded.
 

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

Click to see Search terms/strategies & Electronic Databases Used

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 9173

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 1098

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 101

Number of Review Articles Identified: 0

Total Number of Articles Identified: 101

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 997

 



Figure G.1.     Flow chart of literature search results for studies examining the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease


List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

INCLUDED ARTICLES
 
Index/Score:

  1. Agnoli C, Krogh V, Grioni S, Sieri S, Palli D, Masala G, Sacerdote C, Vineis P, Tumino R, Frasca G, Pala V, Berrino F, Chiodini P, Mattiello A, Panico S. A priori-defined dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk of stroke in a large Italian cohort. J Nutr. 2011 Aug;141(8):1552-8. Epub 2011 May 31. PubMed PMID: 21628636.
  2. Akbaraly TN, Ferrie JE, Berr C, Brunner EJ, Head J, Marmot MG, Singh-Manoux A, Ritchie K, Shipley MJ, Kivimaki M. Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;94(1):247-53. Epub 2011 May 25. PubMed PMID: 21613557; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3127516.
  3. Belin RJ, Greenland P, Allison M, Martin L, Shikany JM, Larson J, Tinker L, Howard BV, Lloyd-Jones D, Van Horn L. Diet quality and the risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;94(1):49-57. Epub 2011 May 25. PubMed PMID: 21613562; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3127501.
  4. Buckland G, Agudo A, Travier N, Huerta JM, Cirera L, Tormo MJ, Navarro C, Chirlaque MD, Moreno-Iribas C, Ardanaz E, Barricarte A, Etxeberria J, Marin P, Quirós JR, Redondo ML, Larrañaga N, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Arriola L, Basterretxea M, Sanchez MJ, Molina E, González CA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov;106(10):1581-91. Epub 2011 May 17. PubMed PMID: 21736834.
  5. Buckland G, González CA, Agudo A, Vilardell M, Berenguer A, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, Arriola L, Barricarte A, Basterretxea M, Chirlaque MD, Cirera L, Dorronsoro M, Egües N, Huerta JM, Larrañaga N, Marin P, Martínez C, Molina E, Navarro C, Quirós JR, Rodriguez L, Sanchez MJ, Tormo MJ, Moreno-Iribas C. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Dec 15;170(12):1518-29. Epub 2009 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 19903723.
  6. Camões M, Oliveira A, Pereira M, Severo M, Lopes C. Role of physical activity and diet in incidence of hypertension: a population-based study in Portuguese adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec;64(12):1441-9. Epub 2010 Sep 1. PMID: 20808327.
  7. Chiuve SE, Fung TT, Rexrode KM, Spiegelman D, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Albert CM. Adherence to a low-risk, healthy lifestyle and risk of sudden cardiac death among women. JAMA. 2011 Jul 6;306(1):62-9. PubMed PMID: 21730242; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3210472.
  8. Chiuve SE, Fung TT, Rimm EB, Hu FB, McCullough ML, Wang M, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Alternative dietary indices both strongly predict risk of chronic disease. J Nutr. 2012 Jun;142(6):1009-18. Epub 2012 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 22513989.
  9. Dauchet L, Kesse-Guyot E, Czernichow S, Bertrais S, Estaquio C, Péneau S, Vergnaud AC, Chat-Yung S, Castetbon K, Deschamps V, Brindel P, Hercberg S. Dietary patterns and blood pressure change over 5-y follow-up in the SU.VI.MAX cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1650-6. PubMed PMID: 17556705.
  10. Dilis V, Katsoulis M, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, Naska A, Trichopoulou A. Mediterranean diet and CHD: the Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108(4):699-709. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001821. PubMed PMID: 22894912.
  11. Drake I, Gullberg B, Sonestedt E, Wallström P, Persson M, Hlebowicz J, Nilsson J, Hedblad B, Wirfält E. Scoring models of a diet quality index and the predictive capability of mortality in a population-based cohort of Swedish men and women. Public Health Nutr. 2012 May 29:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22643161.
  12. Estruch R, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Covas MI, Fiol M, Gómez-Gracia E, López-Sabater MC, Vinyoles E, Arós F, Conde M, Lahoz C, Lapetra J, Sáez G, Ros E; PREDIMED Study Investigators. Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jul 4;145(1):1-11. PubMed PMID: 16818923.
  13. Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, D Pharm, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA; the PREDIMED Study Investigators. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet. N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 25. [Epub ahead of print PMID:23432189.
  14. Fidanza F, Alberti A, Lanti M, Menotti A. Mediterranean Adequacy Index: correlation with 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease in the Seven Countries Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Oct;14(5):254-8. PubMed PMID: 15673059.
  15. Fitzgerald KC, Chiuve SE, Buring JE, Ridker PM, Glynn RJ. Comparison of associations of adherence to a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet with risks of cardiovascular disease and venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Haemost. 2012 Feb;10(2):189-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04588.x. PubMed PMID: 22151600; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3272095.
  16. Folsom AR, Parker ED, Harnack LJ. Degree of concordance with DASH diet guidelines and incidence of hypertension and fatal cardiovascular disease. Am J Hypertens. 2007 Mar;20(3):225-32. PubMed PMID: 17324731; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2020811.
  17. Fung TT, Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Rexrode KM, Logroscino G, Hu FB. Adherence to a DASH-style diet and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 14;168(7):713-20. Erratum in: Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 23;168(12):1276. PMID: 18413553.
  18. Fung TT, Rexrode KM, Mantzoros CS, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Mediterranean diet and incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Circulation. 2009 Mar 3;119(8):1093-100. Epub 2009 Feb 16. Erratum in: Circulation. 2009 Mar 31;119(12):e379. PubMed PMID: 19221219; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2724471.
  19. Gardener H, Wright CB, Gu Y, Demmer RT, Boden-Albala B, Elkind MS, Sacco RL, Scarmeas N. Mediterranean-style diet and risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death: the Northern Manhattan Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1458-64. Epub 2011 Nov 9. PubMed PMID: 22071704; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3252546.
  20. Hansen-Krone IJ, Enga KF, Njølstad I, Hansen JB, Braekkan SK. Heart healthy diet and risk of myocardial infarction and venous thromboembolism. The Tromsø Study. Thromb Haemost. 2012 Jun 28;108(3). [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22739999.
  21. Hoevenaar-Blom MP, Nooyens AC, Kromhout D, Spijkerman AM, Beulens JW, van der Schouw YT, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Verschuren WM. Mediterranean style diet and 12-year incidence of cardiovascular diseases: the EPIC-NL cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45458. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045458. Epub 2012 Sep 28. PubMed PMID: 23029021; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3460941.
  22. Jacobs DR Jr, Sluik D, Rokling-Andersen MH, Anderssen SA, Drevon CA. Association of 1-y changes in diet pattern with cardiovascular disease risk factors and adipokines: results from the 1-y randomized Oslo Diet and Exercise Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb;89(2):509-17. Epub 2008 Dec 30. PubMed PMID: 19116328.
  23. Kaluza J, Håkansson N, Brzozowska A, Wolk A. Diet quality and mortality: a population-based prospective study of men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr;63(4):451-7. Epub 2007 Dec 5. PubMed PMID: 18059415.
  24. Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Graubard BI, Schairer C. A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA. 2000 Apr 26;283(16):2109-15. PMID: 10791502.
  25. Kesse-Guyot E, Touvier M, Henegar A, Czernichow S, Galan P, Hercberg S, Castetbon K. Higher adherence to French dietary guidelines and chronic diseases in the prospective SU.VI.MAX cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug;65(8):887-94. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.61. Epub 2011 May 11. PubMed PMID: 21559045.
  26. Knoops  KT, de Groot  LC, Kromhout  D.  et al.  Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE Project. JAMA 2004;292 (12) 1433- 1439.  PMID: 15383513 (hand search)
  27. Levitan EB, Wolk A, Mittleman MA. Consistency with the DASH diet and incidence of heart failure. Arch Intern Med. 2009 May 11;169(9):851-7. PubMed PMID: 19433696; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2682222.
  28. Levitan EB, Wolk A, Mittleman MA. Relation of consistency with the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet and incidence of heart failure in men aged 45 to 79 years. Am J Cardiol. 2009 Nov 15;104(10):1416-20. Epub 2009 Sep 25. PubMed PMID: 19892061; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2774905.
  29. Martínez-González MA, García-López M, Bes-Rastrollo M, Toledo E, Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Vazquez Z, Benito S, Beunza JJ. Mediterranean diet and the incidence of cardiovascular disease: a Spanish cohort. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Apr;21(4):237-44. Epub 2010 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 20096543.
  30. Martínez-González MA, Guillén-Grima F, De Irala J, Ruíz-Canela M, Bes-Rastrollo M, Beunza JJ, López Del Burgo C, Toledo E, Carlos S, Sánchez-Villegas A. Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with a Reduction in Premature Mortality among Middle-Aged Adults. J Nutr. 2012 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22810987.
  31. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Variyam JN, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1223-31. PubMed PMID: 11063453.
  32. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec;76(6):1261-71. PubMed PMID: 12450892.
  33. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Rosner BA, Hu FB, Hunter DJ, Variyam JN, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1214-22. PubMed PMID: 11063452.
  34. Menotti A, Alberti-Fidanza A, Fidanza F. The association of the Mediterranean Adequacy Index with fatal coronary events in an Italian middle-aged male population followed for 40 years. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Apr;22(4):369-75. Epub 2010 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 21186105.
  35. Michels KB, Wolk A. A prospective study of variety of healthy foods and mortality in women. Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;31(4):847-54. PubMed PMID: 12177033.
  36. Misirli G, Benetou V, Lagiou P, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A. Relation of the traditional mediterranean diet to cerebrovascular disease in a mediterranean population. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Dec 15;176(12):1185-92. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws205. Epub 2012 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 23186748.
  37. Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Thiébaut AC, Reedy J, Subar AF, Wirfält E, Flood A, Mouw T, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Dec 10;167(22):2461-8. PubMed PMID: 18071168.
  38. Nakamura Y, Ueshima H, Okamura T, Kadowaki T, Hayakawa T, Kita Y, Abbott RD, Okayama A; National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-Communicable Diseases and its Trends in the Aged, 1980 Research Group. A Japanese diet and 19-year mortality: national integrated project for prospective observation of non-communicable diseases and its trends in the aged, 1980. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jun;101(11):1696-705. Epub 2008 Nov 20. PubMed PMID: 19021919.
  39. Nilsson LM, Winkvist A, Brustad M, Jansson JH, Johansson I, Lenner P, Lindahl B, Van Guelpen B. A traditional Sami diet score as a determinant of mortality in a general northern Swedish population. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 May 4;71(0):1-12. PubMed PMID: 22584519.
  40. Núñez-Córdoba JM, Valencia-Serrano F, Toledo E, Alonso A, Martínez-González MA. The Mediterranean diet and incidence of hypertension: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Feb 1;169(3):339-46. Epub 2008 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 19037007.
  41. Oba S, Nagata C, Nakamura K, Fujii K, Kawachi T, Takatsuka N, Shimizu H. Diet based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and subsequent mortality among men and women in a general Japanese population. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Sep;109(9):1540-7. PubMed PMID: 19699833.
  42. Osler M, Helms Andreasen A, Heitmann B, Høidrup S, Gerdes U, Mørch Jørgensen L, Schroll M. Food intake patterns and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study examining the use of traditional scoring techniques. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):568-74. PubMed PMID: 12080395.
  43. Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas I, Stefanadis C; ATTICA Study. Five-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and its predictors in Greece: the ATTICA study. Vasc Med. 2008;13(2):113-21. PubMed PMID: 18593800.
  44. Rumawas ME, Meigs JB, Dwyer JT, McKeown NM, Jacques PF. Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome traits, and incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1608-14. Epub 2009 Oct 14. PubMed PMID: 19828705; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3152203.
  45. Russell J, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Gopinath B, Allman-Farinelli M, Bauman A, Mitchell P. Adherence to dietary guidelines and 15-year risk of all-cause mortality. Br J Nutr. 2012 May 9:1-9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22571690.
  46. Seymour JD, Calle EE, Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Ford ES, Thun MJ; American Cancer Society. Diet Quality Index as a predictor of short-term mortality in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Jun 1;157(11):980-8. PubMed PMID: 12777361.
  47. Sjögren P, Becker W, Warensjö E, Olsson E, Byberg L, Gustafsson IB, Karlström B, Cederholm T. Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct;92(4):967-74. Epub 2010 Sep 8. PubMed PMID: 20826627.
  48. Steffen LM, Kroenke CH, Yu X, Pereira MA, Slattery ML, Van Horn L, Gross MD, Jacobs DR Jr. Associations of plant food, dairy product, and meat intakes with 15-y incidence of elevated blood pressure in young black and white adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;82(6):1169-77; quiz 1363-4. PubMed PMID: 16332648.
  49. Tognon G, Nilsson LM, Lissner L, Johansson I, Hallmans G, Lindahl B, Winkvist A. The mediterranean diet score and mortality are inversely associated in adults living in the subarctic region. J Nutr. 2012 Aug;142(8):1547-53. Epub 2012 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 22739377.
  50. Toledo E, de A Carmona-Torre F, Alonso A, Puchau B, Zulet MA, Martinez JA, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Hypothesis-oriented food patterns and incidence of hypertension: 6-year follow-up of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) prospective cohort. Public Health Nutr. 2010 Mar;13(3):338-49. Epub 2009 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 19656442.
  51. Tortosa A, Bes-Rastrollo M, Sanchez-Villegas A, Basterra-Gortari FJ, Nuñez-Cordoba JM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Mediterranean diet inversely associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome: the SUN prospective cohort. Diabetes Care. 2007 Nov;30(11):2957-9. Epub 2007 Aug 21. PubMed PMID: 17712023.
  52. Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 26;348(26):2599-608. PubMed PMID: 12826634.
  53. van de Laar RJ, Stehouwer CD, van Bussel BC, Prins MH, Twisk JW, Ferreira I. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern in early life is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. J Intern Med. 2012 Jul 19. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2012.02577.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22809371.
  54. von Ruesten A, Illner AK, Buijsse B, Heidemann C, Boeing H. Adherence to recommendations of the German food pyramid and risk of chronic diseases: results from the EPIC-Potsdam study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;64(11):1251-9. Epub 2010 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 20717136.
  55. Zamora D, Gordon-Larsen P, He K, Jacobs DR Jr, Shikany JM, Popkin BM. Are the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Associated With reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors? Twenty-year findings from the CARDIA study. Diabetes Care. 2011 May;34(5):1183-5. Epub 2011 Apr 8. PubMed PMID: 21478463; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3114488.
 
Factor Analysis:
  1. Akesson A, Weismayer C, Newby PK, Wolk A. Combined effect of low-risk dietary and lifestyle behaviors in primary prevention of myocardial infarction in women. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Oct 22;167(19):2122-7. PubMed PMID: 17954808.
  2. Brunner EJ, Mosdøl A, Witte DR, Martikainen P, Stafford M, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG. Dietary patterns and 15-y risks of major coronary events, diabetes, and mortality. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1414-21. PubMed PMID: 18469266.
  3. Duffey KJ, Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Jacobs DR Jr, Popkin BM. Dietary patterns matter: diet beverages and cardiometabolic risks in the longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr;95(4):909-15. Epub 2012 Feb 29. PubMed PMID: 22378729; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3302365.
  4. Farchi G, Mariotti S, Menotti A, Seccareccia F, Torsello S, Fidanza F. Diet and 20-y mortality in two rural population groups of middle-aged men in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Nov;50(5):1095-103. PubMed PMID: 2816794.
  5. Fung TT, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Hu FB. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women. Stroke. 2004 Sep;35(9):2014-9. Epub 2004 Jul 1. PubMed PMID: 15232120.
  6. Fung TT, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hu FB. Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Aug 13-27;161(15):1857-62. PubMed PMID: 11493127.
  7. Guallar-Castillón P, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, Tormo MJ, Sánchez MJ, Rodríguez L, Quirós JR, Navarro C, Molina E, Martínez C, Marín P, Lopez-Garcia E, Larrañaga N, Huerta JM, Dorronsoro M, Chirlaque MD, Buckland G, Barricarte A, Banegas JR, Arriola L, Ardanaz E, González CA, Moreno-Iribas C. Major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in middle-aged persons from a Mediterranean country: the EPIC-Spain cohort study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Mar;22(3):192-9. Epub 2010 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 20708394.
  8. Harriss LR, English DR, Powles J, Giles GG, Tonkin AM, Hodge AM, Brazionis L, O'Dea K. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):221-9. PubMed PMID: 17616784.
  9. Heidemann C, Schulze MB, Franco OH, van Dam RM, Mantzoros CS, Hu FB. Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women. Circulation. 2008 Jul 15;118(3):230-7. Epub 2008 Jun 23. PubMed PMID: 18574045; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2748772.
  10. Hlebowicz J, Persson M, Gullberg B, Sonestedt E, Wallström P, Drake I, Nilsson J, Hedblad B, Wirfält E. Food patterns, inflammation markers and incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. J Intern Med. 2011 Oct;270(4):365-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02382.x. Epub 2011 May 4. PubMed PMID: 21443679.
  11. Hu FB, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Willett WC. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct;72(4):912-21. PubMed PMID: 11010931.
  12. Kimokoti RW, Gona P, Zhu L, Newby PK, Millen BE, Brown LS, D'Agostino RB, Fung TT. Dietary Patterns of Women Are Associated with Incident Abdominal Obesity but Not Metabolic Syndrome. J Nutr. 2012 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22833658.
  13. Maruyama K, Iso H, Date C, Kikuchi S, Watanabe Y, Wada Y, Inaba Y, Tamakoshi A; JACC Study Group. Dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular deaths among middle-aged Japanese: JACC Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22410388.
  14. Menotti A, Alberti-Fidanza A, Fidanza F, Lanti M, Fruttini D. Factor analysis in the identification of dietary patterns and their predictive role in morbid and fatal events. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec 14:1-8. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22166270.
  15. Mikkilä V, Räsänen L, Raitakari OT, Marniemi J, Pietinen P, Rönnemaa T, Viikari J. Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul;98(1):218-25. Epub 2007 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 17367571.
  16. Nettleton JA, Polak JF, Tracy R, Burke GL, Jacobs DR Jr. Dietary patterns and incident cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep;90(3):647-54. Epub 2009 Jul 22. PubMed PMID: 19625679; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2728647.
  17. Osler M, Heitmann BL, Gerdes LU, Jørgensen LM, Schroll M. Dietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women: a prospective observational study. Br J Nutr. 2001 Feb;85(2):219-25. PubMed PMID: 11242490.
  18. Osler M, Helms Andreasen A, Heitmann B, Høidrup S, Gerdes U, Mørch Jørgensen L, Schroll M. Food intake patterns and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study examining the use of traditional scoring techniques. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):568-74. PubMed PMID: 12080395.
  19. Panagiotakos D, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Palliou K, Lentzas I, Skoumas I, Stefanadis C. Dietary patterns and 5-year incidence of cardiovascular disease: a multivariate analysis of the ATTICA study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 May;19(4):253-63. Epub 2008 Aug 21. PubMed PMID: 18722096.
  20. Schulze MB, Hoffmann K, Kroke A, Boeing H. Risk of hypertension among women in the EPIC-Potsdam Study: comparison of relative risk estimates for exploratory and hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Aug 15;158(4):365-73. PubMed PMID: 12915502.
  21. Shimazu T, Kuriyama S, Hozawa A, Ohmori K, Sato Y, Nakaya N, Nishino Y, Tsubono Y, Tsuji I. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japan: a prospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Jun;36(3):600-9. Epub 2007 Feb 22. PubMed PMID: 17317693. (hand search)
  22. Stricker MD, Onland-Moret NC, Boer JM, van der Schouw YT, Verschuren WM, May AM, Peeters PH, Beulens JW. Dietary patterns derived from principal component- and k-means cluster analysis: Long-term association with coronary heart disease and stroke. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 May 28. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22647416.
 
Reduced Rank Regression:
  1. Drogan D, Hoffmann K, Schulz M, Bergmann MM, Boeing H, Weikert C. A food pattern predicting prospective weight change is associated with risk of fatal but not with nonfatal cardiovascular disease. J Nutr. 2007 Aug;137(8):1961-7. PubMed PMID: 17634271.
  2. Héroux M, Janssen I, Lam M, Lee DC, Hebert JR, Sui X, Blair SN. Dietary patterns and the risk of mortality: impact of cardiorespiratory fitness. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Feb;39(1):197-209. Epub 2009 Apr 20. PubMed PMID: 19380370; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2912488.
  3. McNaughton SA, Mishra GD, Brunner EJ. Food patterns associated with blood lipids are predictive of coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study. Br J Nutr. 2009 Aug;102(4):619-24. Epub 2009 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 19327192; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2788758.
  4. Meyer J, Döring A, Herder C, Roden M, Koenig W, Thorand B. Dietary patterns, subclinical inflammation, incident coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged men from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;65(7):800-7. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.37. Epub 2011 Apr 6. PMID: 21468094.
 
Other Methods:
  1. Adamsson V, Reumark A, Fredriksson IB, Hammarström E, Vessby B, Johansson G, Risérus U. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET). J Intern Med. 2011 Feb;269(2):150-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02290.x. Epub 2010 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 20964740.
  2. Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP, Sacks FM, Bray GA, Vogt TM, Cutler JA, Windhauser MM, Lin PH, Karanja N. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 Apr 17;336(16):1117-24. PubMed PMID: 9099655.
  3. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, Obarzanek E, Swain JF, Miller ER 3rd, Conlin PR, Erlinger TP, Rosner BA, Laranjo NM, Charleston J, McCarron P, Bishop LM; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Nov 16;294(19):2455-64. PubMed PMID: 16287956.
  4. Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Hinderliter A, Watkins LL, Craighead L, Lin PH, Caccia C, Johnson J, Waugh R, Sherwood A. Effects of the DASH diet alone and in combination with exercise and weight loss on blood pressure and cardiovascular biomarkers in men and women with high blood pressure: the ENCORE study. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jan 25;170(2):126-35. PubMed PMID: 20101007.
  5. Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Sherwood A, Craighead L, Lin PH, Johnson J, Watkins LL, Wang JT, Kuhn C, Feinglos M, Hinderliter A. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids. Hypertension. 2010 May;55(5):1199-205. Epub 2010 Mar 8. PubMed PMID: 20212264; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2874827.
  6. Burr ML, Butland BK. Heart disease in British vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Sep;48(3 Suppl):830-2. PubMed PMID: 3414590.
  7. Chang-Claude J, Hermann S, Eilber U, Steindorf K. Lifestyle determinants and mortality in German vegetarians and health-conscious persons: results of a 21-year follow-up. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Apr;14(4):963-8. PubMed PMID: 15824171.
  8. Conlin PR, Chow D, Miller ER 3rd, Svetkey LP, Lin PH, Harsha DW, Moore TJ, Sacks FM, Appel LJ. The effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Am J Hypertens. 2000 Sep;13(9):949-55. PubMed PMID: 10981543.
  9. Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ.Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar;97(3):597-603. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.044073. Epub 2013 Jan 30.PMID:23364007.
  10. Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Kuller LH, LaCroix AZ, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Lewis CE, Limacher MC, Margolis KL, Mysiw WJ, Ockene JK, Parker LM, Perri MG, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Robbins J, Rossouw JE, Sarto GE, Schatz IJ, Snetselaar LG, Stevens VJ, Tinker LF, Trevisan M, Vitolins MZ, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, Gass M, Granek I, Greenland P, Hays J, Heber D, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Kotchen JM. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006 Feb 8;295(6):655-66. PubMed PMID: 16467234.
  11. Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-524S. PubMed PMID: 10479225.
  12. Key TJ, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Burr ML. Dietary habits and mortality in 11, 000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up. BMJ. 1996 Sep 28;313(7060):775-9. PubMed PMID: 8842068; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2352199.
  13. Lien LF, Brown AJ, Ard JD, Loria C, Erlinger TP, Feldstein AC, Lin PH, Champagne CM, King AC, McGuire HL, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, Harsha DW, McBurnie MA, Appel LJ, Svetkey LP. Effects of PREMIER lifestyle modifications on participants with and without the metabolic syndrome. Hypertension. 2007 Oct;50(4):609-16. Epub 2007 Aug 13. PMID: 17698724.
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  15. Moore TJ, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vogt TM, Conlin PR, Simons-Morton DG, Carter-Edwards L, Harsha DW. Effect of dietary patterns on ambulatory blood pressure : results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. DASH Collaborative Research Group. Hypertension. 1999 Sep;34(3):472-7. PubMed PMID: 10489396.
  16. Obarzanek E, Sacks FM, Vollmer WM, Bray GA, Miller ER 3rd, Lin PH, Karanja NM, Most-Windhauser MM, Moore TJ, Swain JF, Bales CW, Proschan MA; DASH Research Group. Effects on blood lipids of a blood pressure-lowering diet: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jul;74(1):80-9. PubMed PMID: 11451721.
  17. Orlich MJ, Singh PN, Sabaté J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Knutsen S, Beeson WL, Fraser GE. Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in adventist health study 2. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jul 8;173(13):1230-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6473. PubMed PMID: 23836264
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  19. Saneei P, Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Rajaei S, Esmaillzadeh A. Effects of recommendations to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet v. usual dietary advice on childhood metabolic syndrome: a randomised cross-over clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2013 Jun 18:1-10. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23773316.
  20. Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton DG, Proschan MA, Sacks FM, Conlin PR, Harsha D, Moore TJ. Effect of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet and reduced sodium intake on blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2004 Jul;6(7):373-81. PubMed PMID: 15249792.


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