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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

What is the relationship between glycemic index or glycemic load and body weight? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

03/18/09

Inclusion Criteria

  • June 2004 to March 2009
  • Human subjects
  • English language
  • International
  • Sample size: Minimum of 10 subjects per study arm; preference for larger sizes, if available
  • Dropout rate: Less than 20%; preference for smaller dropout rates
  • Ages: Children, two to 18 years; adult, 19 years and older
  • Populations: Healthy and those with elevated chronic disease risk.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Reviews (narrative and systematic review), meta-analysis
  • Medical treatment or therapy, including medical treatment of diabetes
  • Diseased subjects (already diagnosed with disease related to study purpose)
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.).

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

(“Glycemic Index[Mesh] OR “glycemic load”) AND “Body Weights and Measures”[Mesh] ] OR “body composition”[mh])

PubMed.

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 232

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 45

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

Hand Search (Three Articles)

Liese AD, Schulz M, Fang F, Wolever TM, D'Agostino RB Jr, Sparks KC, Mayer-Davis EJ. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes Care. 2005 Dec; 28(12): 2, 832-2, 838. PMID: 16306541. (Hand search) 

Milton JE, Briche B, Brown IJ, Hickson M, Robertson CE, Frost GS. Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: Analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Nov; 10(11): 1, 321-1, 335. Epub 2007 Apr 24. PMID: 17456246. (Hand search)

Philippou E, Neary NM, Chaudhri O, Brynes AE, Dornhorst A, Leeds AR, Hickson M, Frost GS. The effect of dietary glycemic index on weight maintenance in overweight subjects: A pilot study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Feb; 17(2): 396-401. Epub 2008 Dec 4. (Hand search)

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 22

Number of Review Articles Identified: 0

Total Number of Articles Identified: 22

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 26

 




List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

Abete I, Parra D, Martinez JA. Energy-restricted diets based on a distinct food selection affecting the glycemic index induce different weight loss and oxidative response. Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug; 27(4): 545-551. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PMID: 18308431.

Aston LM, Stokes CS, Jebb SA. No effect of a diet with a reduced glycaemic index on satiety, energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jan; 32(1): 160-165. Epub 2007 Oct 9. PMID: 17923862.

de Rougemont A, Normand S, Nazare JA, Skilton MR, Sothier M, Vinoy S, Laville M. Beneficial effects of a 5-week low-glycaemic index regimen on weight control and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight non-diabetic subjects. Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec; 98(6): 1, 288-1, 298. Epub 2007 Jul 9. PMID: 17617942.

Deierlein AL, Siega-Riz AM, Herring A. Dietary energy density but not glycemic load is associated with gestational weight gain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep; 88(3): 693-699. PMID: 18779285.

Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 May 16; 297(19): 2, 092-2, 102. Erratum in: JAMA. 2007 Aug 8; 298(6): 627. PMID: 17507345.

Hare-Bruun H, Flint A, Heitmann BL. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct; 84(4): 871-879; quiz, 952-953. PMID: 17023715.

Hui LL, Nelson EA. Meal glycaemic load of normal-weight and overweight Hong Kong children. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb; 60(2): 220-227. PMID: 16278694.

Lau C, Toft U, Tetens I, Richelsen B, Jørgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Glümer C. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: Is underreporting a problem? Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep; 84(3): 641-645. PMID: 16960180.

Liese AD, Schulz M, Fang F, Wolever TM, D'Agostino RB Jr, Sparks KC, Mayer-Davis EJ. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes Care. 2005 Dec; 28(12): 2, 832-2, 838. PMID: 16306541.

Maki KC, Rains TM, Kaden VN, Raneri KR, Davidson MH. Effects of a reduced-glycemic-load diet on body weight, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk markers in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85(3): 724-734. PMID: 17344493.

McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, O'neill K, Samman S, Steinbeck K, Caterson I, Brand-Miller J. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jul 24; 166(14): 1, 466-1, 475. PMID: 16864756.

Mendez MA, Covas MI, Marrugat J, Vila J, Schröder H. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan; 89(1): 316-322. Epub 2008 Dec 3. PMID: 19056597.

Milton JE, Briche B, Brown IJ, Hickson M, Robertson CE, Frost GS. Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: Analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Nov; 10(11): 1, 321-1, 335. Epub 2007 Apr 24. PMID: 17456246.

Murakami K, Sasaki S, Okubo H, Takahashi Y, Hosoi Y, Itabashi M. Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic index and load, and body mass index: A cross-sectional study of 3, 931 Japanese women aged 18-20 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug; 61(8): 986-995. Epub 2007 Jan 24. PMID: 17251928.

Nielsen BM, Bjørnsbo KS, Tetens I, Heitmann BL. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec; 94(6): 992-997. PMID: 16351778.

Pal S, Lim S, Egger G. The effect of a low glycaemic index breakfast on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight, body composition and satiety in obese and overweight individuals: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Jun; 27(3): 387-393. PMID: 18838526.

Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, Rifai N, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA. 2004 Nov 24; 292(20): 2, 482-2, 490. PMID: 15562127.

Philippou E, Neary NM, Chaudhri O, Brynes AE, Dornhorst A, Leeds AR, Hickson M, Frost GS. The effect of dietary glycemic index on weight maintenance in overweight subjects: A pilot study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Feb; 17(2): 396-401. Epub 2008 Dec 4. 

Pittas AG, Roberts SB, Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Saltzman E, Golden J, Stark PC, Greenberg AS. The effects of the dietary glycemic load on type 2 diabetes risk factors during weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Dec; 14(12): 2, 200-2, 209. PMID: 17189547. 

Raatz SK, Torkelson CJ, Redmon JB, Reck KP, KwongCA, Swanson JE, Liu C, Thomas W, Bantle JP. Reduced glycemic index and glycemic load diets do not increase the effects of energy restriction on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in obese men and women. J Nutr. 2005 Oct; 135(10): 2, 387-2, 391. PMID: 16177201.

Sichieri R, Moura AS, Genelhu V, Hu F, Willett WC. An 18-month randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86(3): 707-713. PMID: 17823436.

Sloth B, Krog-Mikkelsen I, Flint A, Tetens I, Björck I, Vinoy S, Elmståhl H, Astrup A, Lang V, Raben A. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-week ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Aug; 80(2): 337-347. PMID: 15277154. 


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

Article Reason for Exclusion
Arumugam V, Lee JS, Nowak JK, Pohle RJ, Nyrop JE, Leddy JJ, Pelkman CL. A high-glycemic meal pattern elicited increased subjective appetite sensations in overweight and obese women. Appetite. 2008 Mar-May; 50(2-3): 215-222. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMID: 17714828. Does not include body weight in analyses.
Aston LM. Glycaemic index and metabolic disease risk. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Feb; 65(1): 125-134. Review. PMID: 16441952. Study design is narrative review.
Astrup A. How to maintain a healthy body weight. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2006 Jul; 76(4): 208-215. Review. PMID: 17243084. Study design is narrative review.
Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, Flood VM, Prvan T, Mitchell P, Brand-Miller JC. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar; 87(3): 627-637. Review. PMID: 18326601. Does not include body weight in analyses.
Bornet FR, Jardy-Gennetier AE, Jacquet N, Stowell J. Glycaemic response to foods: impact on satiety and long-term weight regulation. Appetite. 2007 Nov; 49(3): 535-553. Epub 2007 May 3. Review. PMID: 17610996. Study design is systematic review.
Buyken AE, Trauner K, Günther AL, Kroke A, Remer T. Breakfast glycemic index affects subsequent daily energy intake in free-living healthy children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct; 86(4): 980-987. PMID: 17921374. Does not include body weight in analyses.
Carels RA, Darby LA, Douglass OM, Cacciapaglia HM, Rydin S. Education on the glycemic index of foods fails to improve treatment outcomes in a behavioral weight loss program. Eat Behav. 2005 Feb; 6(2): 145-150. PMID: 15598601. Does not answer question; examined behavioral weight loss program.
Davis MS, Miller CK, Mitchell DC. More favorable dietary patterns are associated with lower glycemic load in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Dec; 104(12): 1, 828-1, 835. PMID: 15565077. Does not include body weight in analyses.
Díaz EO, Galgani JE, Aguirre CA, Atwater IJ, Burrows R. Effect of glycemic index on whole-body substrate oxidation in obese women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jan; 29(1): 108-114. Erratum in: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Jul; 29(7): 879. PMID: 15505637. Does not include body weight in analyses.
Fajcsak Z, Gabor A, Kovacs V, Martos E. The effects of six-week low glycemic load diet based on low glycemic index foods in overweight/obese children: Pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Feb; 27(1): 12-21. PMID: 18460477. Sample size less than inclusion criteria.
Gibson LJ, Peto J, Warren JM, dos Santos Silva I. Lack of evidence on diets for obesity for children: A systematic review. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Dec; 35(6): 1, 544-1, 552. Epub 2006 Sep 19. Review. PMID: 16984930. Study design is systematic review.
Hare-Bruun H, Nielsen BM, Grau K, Oxlund AL, Heitmann BL. Should glycemic index and glycemic load be considered in dietary recommendations? Nutr Rev. 2008 Oct; 66(10): 569-590. Review. PMID: 18826453. Study design is narrative review.
Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Dodwell LM, Wynne JM. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load values of cereal products and weight-management meals available in the UK. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul; 98(1): 147-153. Epub 2007 Mar 30. PMID: 17397560. Does not answer question: examined product availability in the UK.
Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Strik CM. Effects of long-term intervention with low- and high-glycaemic-index breakfasts on food intake in children aged 8 to 11 years. Br J Nutr. 2007 Sep; 98(3): 636-640. Epub 2007 Apr 23. PMID: 17451613. Does not include body weight in analyses.
Jiménez-Cruz A, Gutiérrez-González AN, Bacardi-Gascon M. Low glycemic index lunch on satiety in overweight and obese people with type 2 diabetes. Nutr Hosp. 2005 Sep-Oct; 20(5): 348-350. PMID: 16229403. Participants diagnosed with T2D.
Kim K, Yun SH, Choi BY, Kim MK. Cross-sectional relationship between dietary carbohydrate, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population. Br J Nutr. 2008 Sep; 100(3): 576-584. Epub 2008 Mar 10. PMID: 18328117. Does not answer question; examined relationship between glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of metabolic syndrome.
Krishnan S, Rosenberg L, Singer M, Hu FB, Djoussé L, Cupples LA, Palmer JR. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2304-9. PMID: 18039988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Does not answer question; examined relationship between glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of type 2 diabetes.
Lajous M, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fabre A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Romieu I. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May; 87(5): 1, 384-1, 391. PMID: 18469262. Does not answer question; examined relationship between glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer.
Liu S. Lowering dietary glycemic load for weight control and cardiovascular health: A matter of quality. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jul 24; 166(14): 1, 438-1, 439. PMID: 16864751. Publication is editorial.
Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T, Howlett J. Glycemic response and health--a systematic review and meta-analysis: Relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan; 87(1): 258S-268S. Review. PMID: 18175766. Study design is systematic review/meta-analysis.
Newby PK. Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity? A comprehensive review of the evidence. J Law Med Ethics. 2007 Spring; 35(1): 35-60. Review. PMID: 17341216. Study design is narrative review.
Schulz M, Liese AD, Fang F, Gilliard TS, Karter AJ. Is the association between dietary glycemic index and type 2 diabetes modified by waist circumference? Diabetes Care. 2006 May; 29(5): 1, 102-1, 104. PMID: 16644644.  Does not answer question; examined relationship between glycemic index and type 2 diabetes.
Smith MA, Foster JK. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents. Nutr Neurosci. 2008 Oct; 11(5): 219-227. PMID: 18782482. Does not answer question; examined relationship between glycemic index and memory.
Thomas DE, Elliott EJ, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18; (3): CD005105. Review. PMID: 17636786. Study design is systematic review.
Ukleja A, Kunachowicz H, Pachocka L. The use of glycaemic index in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2007; 58(1): 145-151. Review. PMID: 17711103. Study design is narrative review.
Wylie-Rosett J, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Segal-Isaacson A. Carbohydrates and increases in obesity: Does the type of carbohydrate make a difference? Obes Res. 2004 Nov; 12 Suppl 2: 124S-129S. Review. PMID: 15601960.  Study design is narrative review.