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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

What is the impact of liquids vs. solid foods on energy intake and body weight? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

12/10/09

Inclusion Criteria

  • January 2000 to December 2009
  • Human subjects
  • English language
  • International
  • Sample size: Minimum of 10 subjects per study arm; preference for larger sizes, if available
  • Dropout rate: Less than 40%; preference for smaller dropout rates
  • Ages: Children, two to 18 years; adult, 19 and older
  • Populations: Healthy, those with elevated chronic disease risk.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Medical treatment or therapy
  • Diseased subjects (already diagnosed with disease related to study purpose)
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Study population not from a developed country as defined by the Human Development Index (http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Articles not peer reviewed (Websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.).

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

((Liquid* OR solid*) AND ("Food and Beverages"[Mesh] OR (food[mh] AND  beverages[mh]))) AND (“Total caloric consumption” OR “energy compensation” OR “dietary compensation” OR (“energy intake”[mh]))

 (“food form” OR “fluid calories” OR soup* OR “energy drinks” OR “liquid calories” OR “solid foods”)  AND (“Total caloric consumption” OR "energy compensation” OR “dietary compensation” OR (“energy intake”[majr]))

("Food and Beverages"[Mesh] OR (food[mh] AND  beverages[mh]) OR “food form” OR “fluid calories” OR soup* OR “energy drinks” OR “ liquid calories” OR “solid foods”) AND ("body weight"[mh] OR adiposity[mh] OR "Body Mass Index"[mh] OR "Overweight"[mh] OR "Obesity"[mh] OR "Weight Gain"[mh] OR "Waist-Hip Ratio"[Mesh])       

Liquid* AND solid* AND ("Food and Beverages"[Mesh] OR (food[mh] AND beverages[mh])) AND ("body weight"[mh] OR adiposity[mh] OR "Body Mass Index"[mh] OR "Overweight"[mh] OR "Obesity"[mh] OR "Weight Gain"[mh] OR "Waist-Hip Ratio"[Mesh]) 
 

PubMed.

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 339

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 34

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

Hand Search (Two articles)

Almiron-Roig E, Flores SY, Drewnowski A. No difference in satiety or in subsequent energy intakes between a beverage and a solid food. Physiol Behav. 2004 Sep 30; 82(4): 671-677. PMID: 15327915.

Moorhead SA, Welch RW, Barbara M, Livingstone E, McCourt M, Burns AA, Dunne A. The effects of the fibre content and physical structure of carrots on satiety and subsequent intakes when eaten as part of a mixed meal. Br J Nutr. 2006; 96(3): 587-595. PMID: 16925866.

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 12

Number of Review Articles Identified: 0

Total Number of Articles Identified: 12

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 24

 




List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

Almiron-Roig E, Flores SY, Drewnowski A. No difference in satiety or in subsequent energy intakes between a beverage and a solid food. Physiol Behav. 2004 Sep 30; 82(4): 671-677. PMID: 15327915. (Hand search) 

Bertrais S, Galan P, Renault N, Zarebska M, Preziosi P, Hercberg S. Consumption of soup and nutritional intake in French adults: Consequences for nutritional status. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Apr; 14(2): 121-128. PMID: 11330261.  

Chen L, Appel LJ, Loria C, Lin PH, Champagne CM, Elmer PJ, Ard JD, Mitchell D, Batch BC, Svetkey LP, Caballero B. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May; 89(5): 1, 299-1, 306. Epub 2009 Apr 1. PMID: 19339405; PMCID: PMC2676995.  

DiMeglio DP, Mattes RD. Liquid vs. solid carbohydrate: Effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun; 24(6): 794-800. PMID: 10878689.  

Flood JE, Rolls BJ. Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake. Appetite. 2007 Nov; 49(3): 626-634. Epub 2007 Apr 14. PMID: 17574705; PMCID: PMC2128765.  

Flood-Obbagy JE, Rolls BJ. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal. Appetite. 2009 Apr; 52(2): 416-422. Epub 2008 Dec 6. PMID: 19110020; PMCID: PMC2664987.  

Mattes RD, Campbell WW. Effects of food form and timing of ingestion on appetite and energy intake in lean young adults and in young adults with obesity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Mar; 109(3): 430-437. PMID: 19248858; PMCID: PMC2680008.  

Moorhead SA, Welch RW, Barbara M, Livingstone E, McCourt M, Burns AA, Dunne A. The effects of the fibre content and physical structure of carrots on satiety and subsequent intakes when eaten as part of a mixed meal. Br J Nutr. 2006; 96(3): 587-595. PMID: 16925866. (Hand search) 

Mourao DM, Bressan J, Campbell WW, Mattes RD. Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov; 31(11): 1, 688-1, 695. Epub 2007 Jun 19. PMID: 17579632.

Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Beach AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Provision of foods differing in energy density affects long-term weight loss. Obes Res. 2005 Jun; 13(6): 1, 052-1, 060. PMID: 15976148.  

Stull AJ, Apolzan JW, Thalacker-Mercer AE, Iglay HB, Campbell WW. Liquid and solid meal replacement products differentially affect postprandial appetite and food intake in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul; 108(7): 1, 226-1, 230. PMID: 18589034; PMCID: PMC2556245.  

Tsuchiya A, Almiron-Roig E, Lluch A, Guyonnet D, Drewnowski A. Higher satiety ratings following yogurt consumption relative to fruit drink or dairy fruit drink. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Apr; 106(4): 550-557. PMID: 16567151.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

Articles Reason for Exclusion
Almiron-Roig E, Chen Y, Drewnowski A. Liquid calories and the failure of satiety: How good is the evidence? Obes Rev. 2003 Nov; 4(4): 201-212. Review. PMID: 14649371. Study design is narrative review.
Bachman CM, Baranowski T, Nicklas TA. Is there an association between sweetened beverages and adiposity? Nutr Rev. 2006 Apr; 64(4): 153-174. Review. PMID: 16673752. Study design is narrative review.
Ballistreri MC, Corradi-Webster CM. Consumption of energy drinks among physical education students. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2008 Jul-Aug; 16 Spec No: 558-564. PMID: 18709275. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Bell EA, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Sensory-specific satiety is affected more by volume than by energy content of a liquid food. Physiol Behav. 2003 Apr; 78(4-5): 593-600. PMID: 12782213. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids; does not include energy intake or body weight in analyses.
Briefel RR, Wilson A, Gleason PM. Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Feb; 109(2 Suppl): S79-S90. PMID: 19166676. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Burger KS, Kern M, Coleman KJ. Characteristics of self-selected portion size in young adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Apr; 107(4): 611-618. PMID: 17383267. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Dennis EA, Flack KD, Davy BM. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review. Eat Behav. 2009 Dec; 10(4): 237-246. Epub 2009 Jul 16. Review. PMID: 19778754. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Drewnowski A, Bellisle F. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85(3): 651-661. Review. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85(6): 1, 668. PMID: 17344485. Study design is narrative review.
Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul; 82(1 Suppl): 236S-241S. Review. PMID: 16002828. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Frecka JM, Hollis JH, Mattes RD. Effects of appetite, BMI, food form and flavor on mastication: almonds as a test food. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct; 62(10): 1, 231-1, 238. Epub 2007 Jul 18. PMID: 17637602. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Harrington S. The role of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescent obesity: A review of the literature. J Sch Nurs. 2008 Feb; 24(1): 3-12. Review. PMID: 18220450. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR, Emmett PM, Jebb SA. Is sugar-sweetened beverage consumption associated with increased fatness in children? Nutrition. 2007 Jul-Aug; 23(7-8): 557-563. PMID: 17616342. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Lecheminant JD, Gibson CA, Sullivan DK, Hall S, Washburn R, Vernon MC, Curry C, Stewart E, Westman EC, Donnelly JE. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program. Nutr J. 2007 Nov 1; 6: 36. PMID: 17976244; PMCID: PMC2228297. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Mattes R. Fluid calories and energy balance: the good, the bad, and the uncertain. Physiol Behav. 2006 Aug 30; 89(1): 66-70. Epub 2006 Mar 6. Review. PMID: 16516935. Study design is narrative review.
Mattes RD. Food palatability, rheology, and meal patterning. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Sep-Oct; 32(5): 572-574. PMID: 18753396. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Mattes RD, Rothacker D. Beverage viscosity is inversely related to postprandial hunger in humans. Physiol Behav. 2001 Nov-Dec; 74(4-5): 551-557. PMID: 11790415. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids; examines beverage viscosity.
Norton GN, Anderson AS, Hetherington MM. Volume and variety: relative effects on food intake. Physiol Behav. 2006 Apr 15; 87(4): 714-722. Epub 2006 Mar 3. PMID: 16516251. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
O'Connor TM, Yang SJ, Nicklas TA. Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct; 118(4): e1, 010-e1, 018. PMID: 17015497. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Rolls BJ, Drewnowski A, Ledikwe JH. Changing the energy density of the diet as a strategy for weight management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May; 105(5 Suppl 1): S98-S103. Review. PMID: 15867904. Study design is narrative review.
Rothacker DQ, Watemberg S. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 May; 55(3): 223-226. PMID: 15223599. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids; examines meal replacement bar.
Rush E, Schulz S, Obolonkin V, Simmons D, Plank L. Are energy drinks contributing to the obesity epidemic? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006; 15(2): 242-244. PMID: 16672210. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Tieken SM, Leidy HJ, Stull AJ, Mattes RD, Schuster RA, Campbell WW. Effects of solid versus liquid meal-replacement products of similar energy content on hunger, satiety, and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults. Horm Metab Res. 2007 May; 39(5): 389-394. PMID: 17533583; PMCID: PMC2197163. Sample size less than inclusion criteria.
West DS, Bursac Z, Quimby D, Prewitt TE, Spatz T, Nash C, Mays G, Eddings K. Self-reported sugar-sweetened beverage intake among college students. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Oct; 14(10): 1, 825-1, 831. PMID: 17062813. Does not answer question; does not examine liquids vs. solids.
Zijlstra N, Mars M, de Wijk RA, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, de Graaf C. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Apr; 32(4): 676-683. Epub 2007 Dec 11. PMID: 18071342. Does not include energy intake or body weight in analyses.