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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

Is energy density associated with weight loss and weight maintenance in adults? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

5/4/2009

Inclusion Criteria

  • June 2004 to present
  • Human subjects
  • English language
  • International
  • Sample size: Minimum of 10 subjects per study arm; preference for larger sizes, if available
  • Dropout rate: Less than 20% under one year and less than 40% at one year or longer
  • Ages: Children, two to 18 years; adults, 19 and older
  • Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, longitudinal cohort studies
  • Populations: Healthy, those with elevated chronic disease risk and those diagnosed with the highly prevalent chronic diseases (CHD/CVD, hypertension, type 2 diabetes,  osteoporosis, osteopenia and obesity) 
  • Estimation of dietary energy density based on food only (not including beverages).

Exclusion Criteria

  • Medical treatment or therapy
  • Diseased subjects
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Malnourished or third-world populations or disease incidence not relative to US population (e.g., malaria)
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.)
  • Cross-sectional studies and narrative reviews.

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

("energy density") AND ("Body Weight"[Mesh] OR "Body Mass Index"[Mesh])
 

PubMed.

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 124

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 67

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 8

Number of Review Articles Identified: 0

Total Number of Articles Identified: 8

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 59

 




List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

Energy Density and Weight Loss

de Oliveira MC, Sichieri R, Venturim Mozzer R. A low-energy-dense diet adding fruit reduces weight and energy intake in women. Appetite. 2008 Sep; 51(2): 291-295. Epub 2008 Mar 7. PMID: 18439712.

Ello-Martin JA, Roe LS, Ledikwe JH, Beach AM, Rolls BJ. Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85(6): 1, 465-1, 477. PMID: 17556681.

Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Beach AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Provision of foods differing in energy density affects long-term weight loss. Obes Res. 2005 Jun; 13(6): 1, 052-1, 060. PMID: 15976148.

Saquib N, Natarajan L, Rock CL, Flatt SW, Madlensky L, Kealey S, Pierce JP. The impact of a long-term reduction in dietary energy density on body weight within a randomized diet trial. Nutr Cancer. 2008; 60(1): 31-38. PMID: 18444133.

Energy Density and Weight Maintenance

Bes-Rastrollo M, van Dam RM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Li TY, Sampson LL, Hu FB. Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep; 88(3): 769-777. PMID: 18779295.

Greene LF, Malpede CZ, Henson CS, Hubbert KA, Heimburger DC, Ard JD. Weight maintenance 2 years after participation in a weight loss program promoting low-energy density foods. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Oct; 14(10): 1, 795-1, 801. PMID: 17062810.

Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, Ard JD, Champagne C, Karanja N, Lin PH, Stevens VJ, Appel LJ. Reductions in dietary energy density are associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants in the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 May; 85(5): 1, 212-1, 221. PMID: 17490955. 

Savage JS, Marini M, Birch LL. Dietary energy density predicts women's weight change over six years. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep; 88(3): 677-684. PMID: 18779283.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

Article (A-K) Reason for Exclusion
Bellisle F, Drewnowski A. Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 61(6): 691-700. Epub 2007 Feb 7. Review. PMID: 17299484. Study is a narrative review.
Briefel RR, Wilson A, Gleason PM. Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Feb; 109(2 Suppl): S79-S90. PMID: 19166676. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Caballero B. Obesity prevention in children: Opportunities and challenges. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Nov; 28 Suppl 3: S90-S95. Review. PMID: 15543227.  Study subjects are children.
Cox TL, Malpede CZ, Desmond RA, Faulk LE, Myer RA, Henson CS, Heimburger DC, Ard JD. Physical activity patterns during weight maintenance following a low-energy density dietary intervention.Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 May; 15(5): 1, 226-1, 232. PMID: 17495199. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Crowe TC, Fontaine HL, Gibbons CJ, Cameron-Smith D, Swinburn BA. Energy density of foods and beverages in the Australian food supply: Influence of macronutrients and comparison to dietary intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov; 8(11): 1, 485-1, 491. PMID: 15173855. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
de Castro JM. Heredity influences the dietary energy density of free-living humans. Physiol Behav. 2006 Jan 30; 7(1): 192-198. Epub 2005 Nov 28. PMID: 16310814. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
de Castro JM. Macronutrient and dietary energy density influences on the intake of free-living humans. Appetite. 2006 Jan; 46(1): 1-5. Epub 2005 Sep 19. PMID: 16171899. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
de Castro JM. Stomach filling may mediate the influence of dietary energy density on the food intake of free-living humans. Physiol Behav. 2005 Sep 15; 86(1-2): 32-45. PMID: 16115659. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
de Graaf C. Effects of snacks on energy intake: an evolutionary perspective. Appetite. 2006 Jul; 47(1): 18-23. Epub 2006 May 3. Review. PMID: 16675059. Study is a narrative review.
Deierlein AL, Siega-Riz AM, Herring A. Dietary energy density but not glycemic load is associated with gestational weight gain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep; 88(3): 693-699. PMID: 18779285. Study subjects were pregnant women.
Devaraj S, Wang-Polagruto J, Polagruto J, Keen CL, Jialal I. High-fat, energy-dense, fast-food-style breakfast results in an increase in oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2008 Jun; 57(6): 867-870. PMID: 18502272. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Devitt AA, Mattes RD.Effects of food unit size and energy density on intake in humans. Appetite. 2004 Apr; 42(2): 213-220. PMID: 15010185. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Drewnowski A, Almiron-Roig E, Marmonier C, Lluch A. Dietary energy density and body weight: is there a relationship? Nutr Rev. 2004 Nov; 62(11): 403-413. Review. PMID: 15622713. Study is a narrative review.
Drewnowski A, Darmon N. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul; 82(1 Suppl): 265S-273S. Review. PMID: 16002835. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Drewnowski A, Monsivais P, Maillot M, Darmon N. Low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet quality and higher diet costs in French adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jun; 107(6): 1, 028-1, 032. PMID: 17524726. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Drewnowski A. Obesity and the food environment: dietary energy density and diet costs. Am J Prev Med. 2004 Oct; 27(3 Suppl): 154-162. PMID: 15450626. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul; 82(1 Suppl): 236S-241S. Review. PMID: 16002828. Study is a narrative review.
Epstein LH, Dearing KK, Paluch RA, Roemmich JN, Cho D. Price and maternal obesity influence purchasing of low- and high-energy-dense foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct; 86(4): 914-922. PMID: 17921365. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Epstein LH, Paluch RA, BeecherMD, Roemmich JN. Increasing healthy eating vs. reducing high energy-dense foods to treat pediatric obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Feb; 16(2): 318-326. PMID: 18239639; PMCID: PMC2408744. Study subjects are children.
Howarth NC, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Kolonel LN. Dietary energy density is associated with overweight status among five ethnic groups in the multiethnic cohort study. J Nutr. 2006 Aug; 136(8): 2, 243-2, 238. PMID: 16857848. Study design is cross-sectional.
Iqbal SI, Helge JW, Heitmann BL Do energy density and dietary fiber influence subsequent five-year weight changes in adult men and women? Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Jan; 14(1): 106-114. PMID: 16493128. Energy density was calculated based on food and beverages.
Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR, Emmett PM, Jebb SA. A prospective analysis of dietary energy density at age five and seven years and fatness at nine years among UK children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Apr; 32(4): 586-593. Epub 2007 Oct 2. PMID: 17912267. 

Study subjects are children.

 

Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR, Emmett PM, Jebb SA. Energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat dietary pattern is associated with increased fatness in childhood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 87(4): 846-854. PMID: 18400706. Study subjects are children.
Kant AK, Andon MB, Angelopoulos TJ, Rippe JM. Association of breakfast energy density with diet quality and body mass index in American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999-2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov; 88(5): 1, 396-1, 404. PMID: 18996877. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Kant AK, Graubard BI. Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Aug; 29(8): 950-956. PMID: 15917854. Study design is cross-sectional
Kral TV, Berkowitz RI, Stunkard AJ, Stallings VA, Brown DD, Faith MS. Dietary energy density increases during early childhood irrespective of familial predisposition to obesity: results from a prospective cohort study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Jul; 31(7): 1, 061-1, 067. Epub 2007 Feb 20. PMID: 17589540. Study subjects are children.
Kral TV, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun; 79(6): 962-968. PMID: 15159224. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Kral TV, Stunkard AJ, Berkowitz RI, Stallings VA, Brown DD, Faith MS. Daily food intake in relation to dietary energy density in the free-living environment: A prospective analysis of children born at different risk of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul; 86(1): 41-47. PMID: 17616761. Study subjects are children.
Krehbiel CR, CranstonJJ, McCurdy MP. An upper limit for caloric density of finishing diets. J Anim Sci. 2006 Apr; 84 Suppl: E34-49. Review. PMID: 16582091. Study subjects are animals.

 

Article (L-S) Reason for Exclusion
Latner JD, Rosewall JK, Chisholm AM. Energy density effects on food intake, appetite ratings, and loss of control in women with binge eating disorder and weight-matched controls. Eat Behav. 2008 Aug; 9(3): 257-266. Epub 2007 Sep 18. PMID: 18549984. Study subjects are diagnosed with binge-eating disorder.
Leahy KE, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Reducing the energy density of an entrée decreases children's energy intake at lunch. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jan; 108(1): 41-48. PMID: 18155988. Study subjects are children.
Leahy KE, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Reducing the energy density of multiple meals decreases the energy intake of preschool-age children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec; 88(6): 1, 459-1, 468. PMID: 19064504.  Study subjects are children.
Ledikwe JH, Blanck HM, Kettel Khan L, Serdula MK, SeymourJD, TohillBC, Rolls BJ. Dietary energy density is associated with energy intake and weight status in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun; 83(6): 1, 362-1, 368. PMID: 16762948. Study design is cross-sectional.
Lin CA, Manary MJ, Maleta K, Briend A, Ashorn P. An energy-dense complementary food is associated with a modest increase in weight gain when compared with a fortified porridge in Malawian children aged 6-18 months. J Nutr. 2008 Mar; 138(3): 593-598. PMID: 18287372. Study subjects are children.
Lowe MR, Tappe KA, Annunziato RA, Riddell LJ, Coletta MC, Crerand CE, Didie ER, Ochner CN, McKinney S. The effect of training in reduced energy density eating and food self-monitoring accuracy on weight loss maintenance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Sep; 16(9): 2, 016-2.023. PMID: 18483475. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Maffeis C, Grezzani A, Perrone L, Del Giudice EM, Saggese G, Tatò L. Could the savory taste of snacks be a further risk factor for overweight in children? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008 Apr; 46(4): 429-437. PMID: 18367957. Study subjects are children.

Maillot M, Darmon N, Vieu F, Drewnowski A.Low energy density and high nutritional quality are each associated with higher diet costs in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep; 86(3): 690-696. PMID: 17823434.

Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Mazlan N, Horgan G, Stubbs RJ. Energy density and weight of food effect short-term caloric compensation in men. Physiol Behav. 2006 Apr 15; 87(4): 679-686. Epub 2006 Mar 20. PMID: 16545404. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
McCaffrey TA, Rennie KL, Kerr MA, Wallace JM, Hannon-Fletcher MP, Coward WA, Jebb SA, Livingstone MB. Energy density of the diet and change in body fatness from childhood to adolescence; is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May; 87(5): 1, 230-1, 237. PMID: 18469244. Study subjects are children.
Mendoza JA, Drewnowski A, Cheadle A, Christakis DA. Dietary energy density is associated with selected predictors of obesity in U.S. Children. J Nutr. 2006 May; 136(5):1, 318-1, 322. PMID: 16614423. Study subjects are children.
Mendoza JA, Drewnowski A, Christakis DA. Dietary energy density is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in U.S.adults. Diabetes Care. 2007 Apr; 30(4): 974-979. Epub 2007 Jan 17. PMID: 17229942. Study design is cross-sectional.
Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Uenishi K; Japan Dietetic Students' Study for Nutrition and Biomarkers Group. Dietary energy density is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with other metabolic risk factors, in free-living young Japanese women. Nutrition. 2007 Nov-Dec; 23(11-12): 798-806. PMID: 17936194. Study design is cross-sectional.
Newby PK. Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity? A comprehensive review of the evidence. J Law Med Ethics. 2007 Spring; 35(1): 35-60. Review. PMID: 17341216.  Study subjects are children.
Newby PK. Examining energy density: comments on diet quality, dietary advice, and the cost of healthful eating. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Aug; 106(8): 1, 166-1, 169. No abstract available. PMID: 16863710. Study is a comment in journal.
Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Naumova EN, Cyr H, Colclough S, Dietz WH, Must A. Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res. 2004 Mar; 12(3): 461-472. PMID: 15044663. Study subjects are children.
Prentice A, Jebb S. Energy intake/physical activity interactions in the homeostasis of body weight regulation. Nutr Rev. 2004 Jul; 62(7 Pt 2): S98-S104. Review. PMID: 15387474. Study is a narrative review.
Rolls BJ, Drewnowski A, Ledikwe JH. Changing the energy density of the diet as a strategy for weight management. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 May; 105(5 Suppl 1): S98-S103. Review. PMID: 15867904. Study is a narrative review.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan; 83(1): 11-17. PMID: 16400043. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Salad and satiety: energy density and portion size of a first-course salad affect energy intake at lunch. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Oct; 104(10): 1, 570-1, 576. PMID: 15389416. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Rolls BJ. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2009 Mar 20. Study is a narrative review.
Silver HJ, Dietrich MS, Castellanos VH. Increased energy density of the home-delivered lunch meal improves 24-hour nutrient intakes in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Dec; 108(12): 2, 084-2, 089. PMID: 19027413. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.

 

 

Article (T-Z) Reason for Exclusion
Townsend MS, Aaron GJ, Monsivais P, Keim NL, Drewnowski A. Less-energy-dense diets of low-income women in California are associated with higher energy-adjusted diet costs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr; 89(4): 1, 220-1, 226. Epub 2009 Feb 18. PMID: 19225114. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Wahlqvist ML. Dietary fat and the prevention of chronic disease. AsiaPac J Clin Nutr. 2005; 14(4): 313-318. Review. PMID: 16326637. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Webb KL, Lahti-Koski M, Rutishauser I, Hector DJ, Knezevic N, Gill T, Peat JK, Leeder SR; CAPSTeam. Consumption of 'extra' foods (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) among children aged 16-24 months from western Sydney, Australia. Public Health Nutr. 2006 Dec; 9(8): 1, 035-1, 044. PMID: 17125568. Study subjects are children.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of energy density of daily food intake on long-term energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2004 Jul; 81(5): 765-771. Review. PMID: 15234182. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Modulatory factors in the effect of energy density on energy intake. Br J Nutr. 2004 Aug; 92 Suppl 1: S35-S39. Review. PMID: 15384321. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Whybrow S, Mayer C, Kirk TR, Mazlan N, Stubbs RJ. Effects of two weeks' mandatory snack consumption on energy intake and energy balance. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Mar; 15(3): 673-685. PMID: 17372318. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Yeomans MR, Weinberg L, James S. Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans. Physiol Behav. 2005 Nov 15; 86(4): 487-499. Epub 2005 Sep 13. PMID: 16165170. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.
Ziegler PJ, Nelson JA, Tay C, Bruemmer B, Drewnowski A. A comparison of three methods of determination of energy density of elite figure skaters. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Oct; 15(5): 537-549. PMID: 16327034. Does not address question; did not examine the relationship between energy density and body weight.