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Search Plan and Results

Question(s)

What is the relationship between portion size and body weight? (DGAC 2010)

Date Searched

12/16/2009

Inclusion Criteria

  • January 2000 to present
  • systematic review and meta-analysis,  randomized controlled trial or clinical controlled studies, large non-randomized observational studies, cohort, case-control studies
  • Human subjects
  • The sample size must equal 10 adult for each study group. For example, this would include 10 patients in the intervention group and 10 patients in the control or comparison group
  • Less than 20%; preference for smaller dropout rates
  • English language
  • International
  • Ages:
    • Children: Under age 18 years 
    • Adults: 19 years and older
  • Populations: Healthy and those with elevated chronic disease risk; people with history of polyps adenomatous, adenoma or adenocarcinoma.

 

Exclusion Criteria

  • Medical treatment/therapy
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Narrative reviews, cross-sectional studies
  • Diseased subjects (already diagnosed with disease related to study purpose)
  • Hospitalized patients
  • Malnourished/third-world populations or disease incidence not relative to US population (e.g., malaria)
  • Animal studies
  • In vitro studies
  • Articles not peer reviewed (websites, magazine articles, Federal reports, etc.).

Search Terms & Electronic Databases Used

("body weight"[mh] OR adiposity[mh] OR "Body Mass Index"[mh] OR "Overweight"[mh] OR "Obesity"[mh] OR "Weight Gain"[mh] OR "Waist-Hip Ratio"[Mesh]) AND (meal size* OR meal portion* OR food portion* OR portion size* OR portion control*)

Pubmed

Total hits from all electronic database searches: 223

Total articles identified to review from electronic databases: 81

Articles Identified Via Handsearch or Other Means

 


Summary of Articles Identified to Review

Number of Primary Articles Identified: 4

Number of Review Articles Identified: 0

Total Number of Articles Identified: 4

Number of Articles Reviewed but Excluded: 77

 




List of Included Articles for Evidence Analysis

CHILDREN (0)

ADULTS (4)

Randomized Controlled Trials (3)

Gilhooly CH, Das SK, Golden JK, McCrory MA, Dallal GE, Saltzman E, Kramer FM, Roberts SB. Food cravings and energy regulation: The characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with eating behaviors and weight change during six months of dietary energy restriction. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Dec; 31 (12): 1, 849-1, 858. Epub 2007 Jun 26. PMID: 17593902.

Hannum SM, Carson LA, Evans EM, Petr EL, Wharton CM, Bui L, Erdman JW Jr. Use of packaged entrees as part of a weight-loss diet in overweight men: An eight-week randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 Mar; 8 (2): 146-155. PMID: 16448518.

Hannum SM, Carson L, Evans EM, Canene KA, Petr EL, Bui L, Erdman JW Jr. Use of portion-controlled entrees enhances weight loss in women. Obes Res. 2004 Mar; 12 (3): 538-546. PMID: 15044672.

Case-Control Studies (1)

Pearcey SM, de Castro JM. Food intake and meal patterns of weight-stable and weight-gaining persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul ;76 (1): 107-112. PMID: 12081823.


List of Excluded Articles with Reason

Article (A-J) Reason for Exclusion
Astrup A, Dyerberg J, Selleck M, Stender S. Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases. Obes Rev. 2008 Mar; 9 Suppl 1: 48-52. Review. PMID: 18307699.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Beasley LJ, Hackett AF, Maxwell SM, Stevenson L. The effect of a dietary preload on estimation of usual food portion size by photograph in female volunteers. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004 Jun; 17 (3): 219-225; quiz 227-30. PMID: 15139893.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Berg C, Lappas G, Wolk A, Strandhagen E, Torén K, Rosengren A, Thelle D, Lissner L. Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population. Appetite. 2009 Feb; 52 (1): 21-26. Epub 2008 Jul 25. PMID: 18694791.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Broekhuizen R, Creutzberg EC, Weling-Scheepers CA, Wouters EF, Schols AM. Optimizing oral nutritional drink supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jun; 93 (6): 965-971. PMID: 16022768.
Participants diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Brunstrom JM, Rogers PJ, Pothos EM, Calitri R, Tapper K. Estimating everyday portion size using a 'method of constant stimuli': In a student sample, portion size is predicted by gender, dietary behaviour and hunger, but not BMI. Appetite. 2008 Sep; 51 (2): 296-301. Epub 2008 Mar 20. PMID: 18467005.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Brunstrom JM, Shakeshaft NG. Measuring affective (liking) and non-affective (expected satiety) determinants of portion size and food reward. Appetite. 2009 Feb; 52(1): 108-14. Epub 2008 Sep 10. PMID: 18831997.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
BurgerKS, Kern M, Coleman KJ. Characteristics of self-selected portion size in young adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Apr; 107 (4): 611-618. PMID: 17383267.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Close RN, Schoeller DA. The financial reality of overeating. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Jun; 25 (3): 203-209. PMID: 16766778.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Cohen DA, Sturm R. Body mass index is increasing faster among taller persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb; 87 (2): 445-458. PMID: 18258637.
Did not include portion size in analyses.
Colapinto CK, Fitzgerald A, Taper LJ, Veugelers PJ. Children's preference for large portions: Prevalence, determinants and consequences. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jul; 107 (7): 1, 183-1, 190. PMID: 17604749.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Croker H, Sweetman C, Cooke L. Mothers' views on portion sizes for children. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009 Oct; 22(5): 437-443. Epub 2009 Jun 10. PMID: 19519751.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Davis C, Curtis C, Tweed S, Patte K. Psychological factors associated with ratings of portion size: Relevance to the risk profile for obesity. Eat Behav. 2007 Apr; 8(2) :170-176. Epub 2006 May 23. PMID: 17336787.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
de Castro JM. The time of day and the proportions of macronutrients eaten are related to total daily food intake. Br J Nutr. 2007 Nov; 98 (5): 1, 077-1, 083. Epub 2007 May 31.PMID: 17537291.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Diliberti N, Bordi PL, ConklinMT, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obes Res. 2004 Mar; 12 (3): 562-568. PMID: 15044675.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Ebbeling CB, Garcia-Lago E, Leidig MM, Seger-Shippee LG, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Altering portion sizes and eating rate to attenuate gorging during a fast food meal: Effects on energy intake. Pediatrics. 2007 May; 119(5): 869-875. PMID: 17473086.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Fisher JO, Arreola A, Birch LL, Rolls BJ. Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low-income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec; 86 (6): 1, 709-1, 716. PMID: 18065590.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Fisher JO. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Feb; 15 (2): 403-412. PMID: 17299114.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between age and self-selected portion size.
Fisher JO, Kral TV. Super-size me: Portion size effects on young children's eating. Physiol Behav. 2008 Apr 22; 94(1): 39-47. Epub 2007 Nov 22. Review. PMID: 18155736.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Flood JE, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. The effect of increased beverage portion size on energy intake at a meal. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Dec; 106 (12): 1, 984-1, 990; discussion 1990-1991. PMID: 17126628.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake and satiety.
Foster GD, Borradaile KE, Vander Veur SS, Leh Shantz K, Dilks RJ, Goldbacher EM, Oliver TL, LagrotteCA, Homko C, Satz W. The effects of a commercially available weight loss program among obese patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized study. Postgrad Med. 2009 Sep; 121 (5): 113-118. PMID: 19820280.
Participants diagnosed with T2D.
Fox MK, Devaney B, Reidy K, Razafindrakoto C, Ziegler P. Relationship between portion size and energy intake among infants and toddlers: Evidence of self-regulation. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan; 106 (1 Suppl 1): S77-S83. PMID: 16376632.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Gans KM, Risica PM, Kirtania U, Jennings A, Strolla LO, Steiner-Asiedu M, Hardy N, Lasater TM. Dietary behaviors and portion sizes of black women who enrolled in SisterTalk and variation by demographic characteristics. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009 Jan-Feb; 41 (1): 32-40. PMID: 19161918.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Geier AB, Rozin P. Univariate and default standard unit biases in estimation of body weight and caloric content. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2009 Jun; 15 (2): 153-162. PMID: 19586254.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Green SM, Wales JK, Lawton CL, Blundell JE. Comparison of high-fat and high-carbohydrate foods in a meal or snack on short-term fat and energy intakes in obese women. Br J Nutr. 2000 Oct; 84 (4): 521-530. PMID: 11103223 .
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy and fat intake.
Greenwood JL, Stanford JB. Preventing or improving obesity by addressing specific eating patterns. J Am Board Fam Med. 2008 Mar-Apr; 21 (2): 135-140. Review. PMID: 18343861.
Study is a narrative review.
Harnack LJ, Jeffery RW, Boutelle KN. Temporal trends in energy intake in the United States: An ecologic perspective. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71 (6): 1, 478-1, 484. PMID: 10837288.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Hartstein J, Cullen KW, Reynolds KD, Harrell J, Resnicow K, Kennel P; STOPP T2D Prevention Study Group. Impact of portion-size control for school a la carte items: Changes in kilocalories and macronutrients purchased by middle school students. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jan; 108 (1): 140-144. PMID: 18156001.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Huang TT, HowarthNC, Lin BH, Roberts SB, McCrory MA. Energy intake and meal portions: Associations with BMI percentile in US children. Obes Res. 2004 Nov; 12(11): 1, 875-1, 885. PMID: 15601985.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Johansson G, Wikman A, Ahrén AM, Hallmans G, Johansson I. Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Aug; 4 (4): 919-927. PMID: 11527517.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Johnstone AM, Shannon E, Whybrow S, Reid CA, Stubbs RJ. Altering the temporal distribution of energy intake with isoenergetically dense foods given as snacks does not affect total daily energy intake in normal-weight men. Br J Nutr. 2000 Jan; 83 (1): 7-14. PMID: 10703459.
Did not include portion size in analyses.

 

Article (K-R) Reason for Exclusion
Kelly MT, Rennie KL, Wallace JM, Robson PJ, Welch RW, Hannon-Fletcher MP, Livingstone MB. Associations between the portion sizes of food groups consumed and measures of adiposity in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Br J Nutr. 2009 May; 101 (9): 1, 413-1, 420. Epub 2008 Oct 10. Erratum in: Br J Nutr. 2009 Aug; 102 (4): 643. PMID: 18845021.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Kelly MT, Wallace JM, Robson PJ, Rennie KL, Welch RW, Hannon-Fletcher MP, Brennan S, Fletcher A, Livingstone MB. Increased portion size leads to a sustained increase in energy intake over four days in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Br J Nutr. 2009 Aug; 102 (3): 470-477. Epub 2009 Feb 16. PMID: 19216813.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Kerr MA, Rennie KL, McCaffrey TA, Wallace JM, Hannon-Fletcher MP, Livingstone MB. Snacking patterns among adolescents: A comparison of type, frequency and portion size between Britain in 1997 and Northern Ireland in 2005. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jan; 101 (1): 122-131. Epub 2008 Jun 5. Erratum in: Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar; 101 (6): 929. PMID: 18533071.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Kraemer WJ, Vingren JL, Silvestre R, Spiering BA, Hatfield DL, Ho JY, Fragala MS, Maresh CM, Volek JS. Effect of adding exercise to a diet containing glucomannan. Metabolism. 2007 Aug; 56 (8): 1, 149-1, 158. PMID: 17618964.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Kral TV, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun; 79 (6): 962-968. PMID: 15159224.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Lioret S, Volatier JL, Lafay L, Touvier M, Maire B. Is food portion size a risk factor of childhood overweight? Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Mar; 63 (3): 382-391. Epub 2007 Nov 21. PMID: 18030311.
Study design is cross-sectional.
Liou D, Bauer KD. Exploratory investigation of obesity risk and prevention in Chinese Americans. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2007 May-Jun; 39 (3): 134-141. PMID: 17493563.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Mattes RD.Ready-to-eat cereal used as a meal replacement promotes weight loss in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Dec; 21 (6): 570-577. PMID: 12480804.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Matthiessen J, Fagt S, Biltoft-Jensen A, Beck AM, Ovesen L. Size makes a difference. Public Health Nutr. 2003 Feb; 6 (1): 65-72. PMID: 12581467.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
McConahy KL, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch LL, Mitchell DC, Picciano MF. Food portions are positively related to energy intake and body weight in early childhood. J Pediatr. 2002 Mar; 140 (3): 340-347. PMID: 11953733
Study design is cross-sectional.
McConahy KL, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, Picciano MF. Portion size of common foods predicts energy intake among preschool-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jun; 104 (6): 975-979. PMID: 15175599
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
McCrory MA, Suen VM, Roberts SB. Biobehavioral influences on energy intake and adult weight gain. J Nutr. 2002 Dec; 132 (12): 3830S-3834S. PMID: 12468634
Study is a narrative review.
Meguid MM, Fetissov SO, Varma M, Sato T, Zhang L, Laviano A, Rossi-Fanelli F. Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake. Nutrition. 2000 Oct; 16 (10): 843-857. Review. PMID: 11054589 .
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Noethlings U, Hoffmann K, Bergmann MM, Boeing H; European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Portion size adds limited information on variance in food intake of participants in the EPIC-Potsdam study. J Nutr. 2003 Feb; 133 (2): 510-515. PMID: 12566492.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Orlet Fisher J, Rolls BJ, Birch LL. Children's bite size and intake of an entrée are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 May; 77 (5): 1, 164-1, 170. PMID: 12716667.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Pedersen SD, Kang J, KlineGA.Portion control plate for weight loss in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A controlled clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jun 25; 167 (12): 1, 277-1, 283. PMID: 17592101.
Participants diagnosed with T2D.
Pratt CA, Lemon SC, Fernandez ID, Goetzel R, Beresford SA, French SA, Stevens VJ, Vogt TM, Webber LS. Design characteristics of worksite environmental interventions for obesity prevention. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15 (9): 2, 171-2, 180. Review. PMID: 17890484.
Study is a report of methodology, does not include results.
Raynor HA, Wing RR. Package unit size and amount of food: Do both influence intake? Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Sep; 15 (9): 2, 311-2, 319. PMID: 17890500.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Engell D, Birch LL. Serving portion size influences five-year-old but not three-year-old children's food intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000 Feb; 100 (2): 232-234. No abstract available. PMID: 10670398.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Morris EL, Roe LS. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Dec; 76 (6): 1, 207-1, 213. PMID: 12450884.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Kral TV, Meengs JS, WallDE. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite. 2004 Feb; 42 (1): 63-69. PMID: 15036784.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over two days. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Apr; 106 (4): 543-549. PMID: 16567150.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan; 83 (1): 11-17. PMID: 16400043. Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Salad and satiety: Energy density and portion size of a first-course salad affect energy intake at lunch. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Oct; 104 (10): 1, 570-1, 576. PMID: 15389416.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. The effect of large portion sizes on energy intake is sustained for 11 days. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jun; 15 (6): 1, 535-1, 543. PMID: 17557991.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS, WallDE. Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Mar; 104 (3): 367-372. PMID: 14993858.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Rosenheck R. Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: A systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk. Obes Rev. 2008 Nov; 9 (6): 535-547. Epub 2008 Mar 14. Review.PMID: 18346099.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.

 

Article (S-Z) Reason for Exclusion
Scagliusi FB, Polacow VO, Artioli GG, Benatti FB, Lancha AH Jr. Selective underreporting of energy intake in women: Magnitude, determinants and effect of training. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Oct; 103 (10): 1, 306-1, 313. PMID: 14520248.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Schwartz J, Byrd-Bredbenner C. Portion distortion: Typical portion sizes selected by young adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep; 106 (9): 1, 412-1, 418. PMID: 16963346.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Shahar D, Fraser D, Shai I, Vardi H. Development of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for an elderly population based on a population survey. J Nutr. 2003 Nov; 133 (11): 3, 625-3, 629. PMID: 14608085.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Smith SR, Blundell JE, Burns C, Ellero C, Schroeder BE, KestyNC, ChenKS, Halseth AE, Lush CW, Weyer C. Pramlintide treatment reduces 24-hour caloric intake and meal sizes and improves control of eating in obese subjects: A six-week translational research study. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug; 293 (2): E620-E627. Epub 2007 May 15. PMID: 17505051.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Stroebele N, Ogden LG, Hill JO. Do calorie-controlled portion sizes of snacks reduce energy intake? Appetite. 2009 Jun; 52 (3): 793-796. Epub 2009 Mar 6. PMID: 19501784.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Sudo N, Sekiyama M, Watanabe C, Bokul AT, Ohtsuka R. Gender differences in food and energy intake among adult villagers in northwestern Bangladesh: A food frequency questionnaire survey. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Sep; 55 (6): 499-509. PMID: 15762314.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight. Study population not from a developed country as defined by the Human Development Index (2010).
Sutton K, Logue E, Jarjoura D, Baughman K, Smucker W, Capers C. Assessing dietary and exercise stage of change to optimize weight loss interventions. Obes Res. 2003 May; 11 (5): 641-652. PMID: 12740454.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
TempleJL, Bulkley AM, Badawy RL, Krause N, McCann S, Epstein LH. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and non-obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug; 90 (2): 304-313. Epub 2009 May 20. PMID: 19458018.
Did not include weight in analyses.
Vermeer WM, Steenhuis IH, Seidell JC. From the point-of-purchase perspective: A qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Health Policy. 2009 Apr; 90 (1): 73-80. Epub 2008 Aug 31. PMID: 18762350.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Wilson C. Lifestyle modification for the management of obesity. Gastroenterology. 2007 May; 132 (6): 2, 226-2, 238. Review. Erratum in: Gastroenterology. 2007 Jul; 133 (1): 371. PMID: 17498514.
Study is a narrative review.
Wansink B, Chandon P. Meal size, not body size, explains errors in estimating the calorie content of meals. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep 5; 145 (5): 326-332. PMID: 16954358.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Wansink B, Kim J. Bad popcorn in big buckets: Portion size can influence intake as much as taste. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005 Sep-Oct; 37 (5): 242-245. PMID: 16053812.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Wansink B, Painter JE, North J. Bottomless bowls: Why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obes Res. 2005 Jan; 13 (1): 93-100. PMID: 15761167. Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Wansink B, van Ittersum K, Painter JE. Ice cream illusions bowls, spoons and self-served portion sizes. Am J Prev Med. 2006 Sep; 31 (3): 240-243. PMID: 16905035.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Analysis of energy density of food in relation to energy intake regulation in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar; 85 (3): 351-361. PMID: 11299081.
Did not answer question; examined the relationship between portion size and energy intake.
Woods SC, Seeley RJ. Adiposity signals and the control of energy homeostasis. Nutrition. 2000 Oct; 16 (10): 894-902. Review. PMID: 11054594.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Yeomans MR, Gould NJ, Leitch M, Mobini S. Effects of energy density and portion size on development of acquired flavor liking and learned satiety. Appetite. 2009 Apr; 52 (2): 469-478. Epub 2008 Dec 24. PMID: 19136035.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Young LR, Nestle M. Expanding portion sizes in the US marketplace: Implications for nutrition counseling. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003 Feb; 103 (2): 231-234. PMID: 12589331.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Young LR, Nestle M. Portion sizes and obesity: Responses of fast-food companies. J Public Health Policy. 2007 Jul; 28 (2): 238-248. PMID: 17585324.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.
Young LR, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health. 2002 Feb; 92 (2): 246-249. PMID: 11818300.
Did not answer the question; did not examine the relationship between portion size and body weight.